Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/28

Click to flip

28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
innate immunity
present beofre exposure to pathogens, effective from birth

mostly nonspecific, quickly recognize and respond to broad range of microbes (regardless of identity)

external barriers (ex. skin) and internal cellular and chemical defenses
acquired immunity
develops after exposure to inducing agents, highly specific, use lymphocytes to recognize
lymphocytes
white blood cells that produce hormonal and cell-mediated responses
antibodies
secreted from B lymphocytes, bind to microbes and mark them for elimination
lysozyme
enzyme that digests the cell walls of many bacteria
external defenses
skin, mucous membranes lining the digestive, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts

oil and sweat glands give skin a low pH, also low pH in stomach
mucus
viscous fluid that traps microbes and other particles
phagocytosis
the ingestion of invading microorganisms by certain types of white blood cells called phagocytes
phagocytes
cells that produce certain antimicrobial proteins and help initiate inflammation, which can limit the spread of microbes in the body

attach to their prey via surface receptors
4 types of white blood cells (leukocytes) that are phagocytic
neutrophils, macrophages, eosinophils, dendritic cells
neutrophils
most common phagocytic leukocytes, attracted to infected tissue, short life span
macrophages
develop from monocytes: transformed into macrophages after a few hours
some migrate, others reside permanently in the spleen, lymph nodes, and other tissues
filter microbes in the lymphatic system
eosinophils
defend against multicellular parasitic invaders, discharge enzymes to attack invaders
dendritic cells
ingest microbes, stimulate the development of acquired immunity
complement system
about 30 serum proteinsthat function in innate defense
interferon
provide innate defense against viral infections
infected body cells secrete and induce neighboring cells to produce other substances that inhibit viral reproduction
not virus specific
defensins
antimicrobial proteins, secreted by macrophages, damage broad groups of pathogens by various mechanisms without harming body cells
inflammatory response
mast cells release histamine, promote blood flow to injured site, results in redness and heat
histamine
chemical stored in mast cells, trigger dilation and increased permeability of capillaries
mast cells
in connective tissues, relase histamine when injured
chemokines
small proteins that direct the migration of phagocytes and signal tem to increase production of microbe-killing compounds
secreted by many cell types
natural killer (NK) cells
patrol the body and attack virus-infected body and cancer cells
once attached to cell, releases chemicals that lead to the death of the stricken cell by apoptosis (programmed cell death)
cytokines
proteins that help activate lymphocytes and other cells of the immune system
antigen
any foreign molecule that is specifically recognized by lymphocytes and elicits a response from them, large molecules, either proteins or polysaccharides
epitope
small, accessible portion of an antigen that is recognizable by lymphocytes, many types that can induce different responses
B lymphocytes (B cells)
type of lymphocyte
T lymphocytes (T cells)
type of lymphocyte
antigen receptors
antigen-specific receptors embedded in plasma membranes of the B or T cells