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50 Cards in this Set

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The two most common responses that influence nursing care:
1 - Reflex Pain Response
2 - Inflammatory Response
3 Stages of GAS (general adaptation syndrome)
1 - Alarm
2 - Resistance
3 - Exhaustion
What happens physiologically during the countershock phase of GAS?
Decrease in: energy levels, oxygen intake, cardiac output, blood pressure, mental alertness (all elevated during previous phase)
What is used to protect one's self esteem?
Defense Mechanisms
What are the two broad categories of stress?
* Developmental Stress
* Situational Stress
The steps of crisis intervention:
1 - Identify the problem
2 - List alternatives
3 - Choose alternative
4 - Implement plan
5 - Evaluate outcome
2 phases of the alarm reaction of GAS (general adaptation syndrome)
1 - Shock Phase
2 - Countershock Phase
What happens physiologically during the shock phase of GAS?
Increase in: Energy levels, Oxygen intake, Cardiac output, Blood pressure, Mental alertness
How is anxiety managed?
WITHOUT conscious thought
Definition: to maintain well-being, psychological homeostasis must be maintained.
Psychological Homeostasis
Examples of Internal Stressors
Illness
Hormonal Change
Fear
Examples of External Stressors
Loud Noises
Cold Temperatures
The Father of Medicine
Hippocrates
Definition: Anything causing a person to experience stress; change in the balanced state
Stressor
Definition: A cognitive response to a known threat
Fear
Definition: The ANS prepares the body to either fight off the stressor or to run away from it
Fight or Flight Response
Definition: Condition in which the human system responds to change in its normal balanced state
Stress
Definition: Stress responses experienced during prolonged periods of home care by family caregivers
Caregiver Burden
Definition: Behaviors exhibited as the result of prolonged occupational stress
Burnout
Definition: The most common human response to stress. Vague, uneasy feeling of discomfort/dread
Anxiety
Definition: A localized response of the body to stress
Local Adaptation Syndrome
Definition: A local response to injury or infection
Inflammatory Response
Definition: Various physiologic and psychologic mechanisms within the body respond to internal changes to maintain relative constancy in the internal environment.
Homeostasis
Definition: biochemical model of stress describing the body's general response to stress.
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
Definition: Forms of self-deception; unconscious process the self uses to protect itself from anxiety or threats to self-esteem
Defense Mechanisms
Definition: a 5 step problem-solving technique designed to promote a more adaptive outcome
Crisis Intervention
Definition: The change that occurs as a response to a stressor
Adaptation
Definition: A response of the CNS to pain.
Reflex Pain Response
Definition: Physical responses to stressors.
Psychosomatic Disorders
Alarm Stage
* Stage 1 of Gas
* lasts minutes to hours
* is initiated when a person perceives a specific stressor, & various defense mechanisms are activated.
Resistance Stage
* Stage 3 of GAS
* The body now attempts to adapt to the perceived stressor
* vital signs, hormone levels, and energy production return to normal.
Exhaustion Stage
* Stage 3 of GAS
* Results when the adaptive mechanisms are exhausted.
* Without defense against stressor, body may rest & mobilize defenses to return to normal or reach total exhaustion & die.
Definition: Person attempts to overcome perceived weakness by emphasizing a more desirable trait
Compensation
Definition: A person refuses to acknowledge the presence of a condition that is disturbing
Denial
Definition: Patterns of behavior used to neutralize, deny, or counteract anxiety
Coping Mechanism
Definition: A disturbance caused by a precipitating event that is perceived as a threat to self.
Crisis
Situational Stress
* Can be Positive or Negative
ie. Illness or Accident; Marriage or Divorce; New Job
Definition: A person transfers an emotional reaction from one object or person to another object or person
Displacement
Definition: A person incorporates qualities or values of another person into his or her own ego structure. This mechanism is important in the formation of conscience during childhood.
Introjection
Definition: A person's thoughts or impulses are attributed to someone else.
Projection
Definition: A person tries to give a logical or socially acceptable explanation for questionable behavior.
Rationalization
Definition: A person develops conscious attitudes and behavior patterns that are opposite to what he or she would really like to do.
Reaction Formation
Definition: A person returns to an earlier method of behaving.
Regression
Definition: The regulatory mechanisms of the body are reacting constantly to changes to maintain homeostasis and health.
Physiologic Homeostasis
Definition: A person voluntarily excludes an anxiety-producing event from conscious awareness.
Repression
Definition: A person substitutes a socially acceptable goal for one whose normal channel of expression is blocked.
Sublimation
Definition: An act or communication used to negate a previous act or communication
Undoing
Definition: The relationship between psychologic stressors and the physiologic stress response.
Mind-Body Interaction
Definition: Occurs as a person progresses through the normal stages of growth and development from birth to old age.
Developmental Stress
Examples of Developmental Stress
ie. When an infant learns trust
When a toddler learns elimination control
When an adolescent is striving for independence