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47 Cards in this Set

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1. What are the 3 categories animals fall into and define each?
a. herbivore, carnivore, omnivore

b. Herbivores; eat mainly plants and algae
Carnivores; eat other animals
Omnivores; regularly consume animals as well as plants and algae
2. What must an animal's diet provide?
a. chemical energy, which converted into ATP to power cellular work
b. organic building blocks, to synthesize variety of organic molecules
c. essential nutrients as required by cells and must be obtained from dietary sources
3. What are the four classes of essential nutrients?
a. essential amino acids
b. essential fatty acids
c. vitamins
d. minerals
4. Essential amino acids
- require 20 amino acids and 11 body produces and 9 come from diet

- meat, eggs, and cheese provide all the essential amino acids and are complete proteins

- most plant proteins are incomplete in amino acids composition
5. Essential fatty acids
- can synthesize most of the fatty acids they need

- must be obtained from the diet and include certain unsaturated fatty acids
6. Vitamins
- organic molecules required in the diet in small amounts
- 13 vitamins are essential for humans
- fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins
7. Minerals
- simple inorganic nutrients, usually required in small amounts

- ingesting large amounts of some minerals can upset homeostatic balance like sodium
8. What is malnourisment?
- a dietary deficiency long-term absence from the diet of one or more essential nutrients
9. What can happen with deficiencing in Essential Nutrients?
- can casue deformities, disease and death
10. What is undernutrition and what are the effects?
a. results when a diet does not provide enough chemical energy

b. use up stored fat and carbs, break down its own proteins, lose muscle mass, suffer protein deficiency of the brain and dier or suffer irreversible damage
11. What are the 4 stages of food processing?
Ingestion, Digestion, Absorption, Eliminiation
12. Suspension feeders
- sift small food particles from the water
13. Substrate feeders
- live in or on their food source
14. Fluid feeders
- suck nutrient-rich fluid from a living host
15. Bulk feeders
- eat relatively large pieces of food
16. Describe the process of digestion
a. digestion is the process of breaking food down into molecules small enough to absorb

b. Mechanical digestion, including chewing, increases the surface area of food

c. Chemical digestion splits food into small molecules that can pass through membranes;

d. the process of enzymatic hydrolysis splits bonds in molecules with addition of water

e. absorption is uptake of nutrients by body cells

f. elimination is the passage of undigested material out of the digestive system
17. What is the function of digestive compartments?
- reduce the risk of an animal digesting its own cells and tissues
18. How does intracellular digestion work?
- food particles are engulfed by phagocytosis

- food vacuoles, containing food, fuse with lysosomes containing hyrolytic enzymes
19. What is extracellular digestion and where does it occur?
a. breakdown of food particles outside of cells

b. it occurs in compartments that are continuous with the outside of the animal's body
20. What is gastrovascular cavity and its function?
a. a cavity where extracellular digestion takes place

b. functions in both digestion and distribution of nutrients
21. What is alimentary canal and its function?
a. digestive tube with two openings, a mouth and anus on more complex animals

b. have specialized regions that carry out digestion and absorption in a stepwise fashion
22. Describe the mammalian digestive system and list the accessory glands.
a. mammalian digestive system consists of an alimentary canal and accessory glands that secrete digestive juices through ducts

b. salivary glands, the pancreas, the liver, and the gallbladder
23. What is peristalsis and what is its role?
a. rhythmic contractions of muscles in the wall of the canal

b. food is pushed along
24. What are sphincters?
- valves that regulate the movement of material between compartments
25. Draw the schematic diagram of digestive process.
mouth -> salivary glands -> esophagus -> stomach -> gallbladder, liver, pancreas -> small intestine -> large intestine -> rectum -> anus
26. Describe the first stages of digestion.
- first stage is mechanical and takes place in the oral cavity
- salivary glands deliver saliva to lubricate food
-teeth chew food into smaller particles that are exposed to salivary amylase enzyme, that breaksdown glucose polymers
- saliva also contains mucus, a viscous misture of water, salts, cells and glycoproteins
- toungue shapes food into a bolus and provides help with swallowing
-throat or pharynx, is the juction that opens to bother the esophagus and the trachea
26. Describe the first stages of digestion continued
-esophagus connects to the stomach
-trachea (windpipe) leads to the lungs
-peristalsis in esophagus takes food down from the pharynx to stomach
-swallowing causes the epiglottis to block entry to the trachea, and the bolus is guided by the larynx, the upper part of the respiratory tract
-coughing occurs whent he swallowing reflex fails and food or liquids reach the windpipe
27. Describe the digestion process in the stomach
- stomach stores food and secretes gastric juice, which converts a meal into acid chyme
-gastric juice has a low pH of about 2, which kills bacteria and denatures proteins; is made up of HCl and pepsin
- pepsin is a protease a protein digesting enzyme that cleaves proteins into smaller peptides
27. Describe the digestion process in the stomach (continued)
- parietal cells secrete hydrogen and chloride ions separately into the lumen of the stomach
-chief cells secrete inactive pepsinogen, which is activated to pepsin when mixed with HCl in the stomach
-mucus protects the stomach lining from the gastric juice
28. What cause gastric ulcers?
- bacterium Heliobacter pylori
29. Explain stomach dynamics
- coordinated contraction and relaxation of stomach muscle churn the stomach's contents

- sphincter prevent chyme from entering the esophagus and regulate its entry into the small intestine
30. Explain first portion of digestion in the small intestine.
- small intestine is the longest section of the alimentary canal and is the major organ of digestion and absorption

- the first portion of the small intestine is the duodenum, where chyme from the stomach mixes with digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, gallbladder and the small intestines itself
31. Pancreatic secretions
- produces protease trypsin and chymotrypsin that are activated in the lumen of the duodenum

- solution is alkaline and neutralizes the acidic chyme
32. Bile production by the liver
- bile added by liver aids in digestion and absorption of fats
-bile is made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder
-bile also destroys nonfunctional red blood cells
33. Secretions of the small intestine
- epithelium lining of the duodenum produces several digestive enzymes
- enzymatic digestion is completed as peristalsis moves the chyme and digestive juices along the small intestine
-digestion occurs in the duodenum; the jejunum and ileum function mainly in absorption of nutrients and water
34. Absorption in the small intestine
- small intestine has a huge surface are, due to villi and microvilli that are exposed to the intestinal lumen
- enormous microvillar surface creates a brush that greatly increases the rate of nutrient absorption
-transport across the epithelial cells can be passive or active depending on the nutrient
- hepatic portal vein carries nutrient-rich blood from the capillaries of the villi to the liver, then to the heart
34. Absorption in the small intestine continued
- regulates nutrient distribution interconverts many organic molecules, and detoxifies many organic molecules
- epithelial cells absorb fatty acids and monoglycerides and recombine them into triglycerides
-these fats are coated with phospholipids, cholesterol and proteins to form water-soluble chylomicrons
-chylomicrons are transported into a lacteal, a lymphatice vessel in each villus
-lymphatic vessels deliver chylomicron-containing lymph to large veins that return blood to the heart
35. Absorption in the large intestine
- colon of the large intestine is connected to the small intestine
-cecum aids in the fermentation of plant material and connects where the small and large intestines meet
-human cecum has an extension called the appendix, which plays a very minor role in immunity
36. Function of the colon
- recover water that has entered the alimentary canal
-houses bacteria like E. Coli which live on unabsorbed organic material; some produce vitamins
-feces, including undigested material and bacteria, become more solid as they move through the colon
feces are stored in the rectum until they can be eliminated through the anus
-two sphincters between the rectum and anus control bowel movements
37. Dental adaptations
- dentition, an animal's assortment of teeth, structural variation reflect diet
-success of mammals is due in part to their dentition
-nonmammalian vertebrates have less specialized teeth
38. Stomach and intestinal adaptations
- carnivores have large, expandalbe stomachs
- herbivores and omnivores generally have longer alimentary canals than carnivore, to digest vegetation
39. Mutualistic adaptations
- herbivores have fermentation chambers, where mutualistic microorganisms digest cellulose
-Ruminants
40. How is digestion regulated?
- each step of digestive system is activated as needed
- intestinal part of the nervous system helps to regulate the digestive process
- endocrine system also regulates digestion
42. How energy storage is regulated?
- body stores energy-rich molecules that are not needed right away for metabolism
-in humans, energy is stored fist in the liver and muscle cells in the polymer glycogen
-excess energy is store in adipose tissue, the most space-efficient storage tissue
43. Explain Glucose Homeostasis
- hormones insuline and glucagon regulate the breakdown of glycogen into glucose
- liver is the site for glucose homeostasis
- carb-high meal raises insulin levels, triggers the systhesis of glycogen
-low blood sugar causes glucagon to stimulate the breakdown of glycogen and release glucose
44. Describe how appetite and consumption is regulated.
- overnourishment causes obesity, which results from excessive intake of food energy with excess stored as fat
-obesity contributes to diabetes, cancer of the colon and breasts, heart attacks, and strokes
-hormones regulate long-term and short-term appetite by affecting the satiety center in the brain
-leptin is produced by adipose tissue and can help to suppress appetite
45. Draw schematic of digestive system.
draw.