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44 Cards in this Set

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peninsula
body of land with water on 3 sides
colony
settlement in a new territory that keeps close ties with its homeland
polis
the early Greek city-state, made up of a city and the surrounding countryside and run like an independant country
agora
in early Greek city-states, an open area that served as both a market and a meeting place
tyrant
person who takes power by force and rules with total authority
oligarchy
government in which a small group of people holds power
democracy
government in which all citizens share in running the government
helot
person who was conquered and enslaved by the ancient Spartans
satrap
official who ruled a state in the Persian Empire under Darius
Zoroastrianism
Persian religion founded by Zoroaster; taught that humans had the freedom to choose between right and wrong, and that goodness will always triumph in the emd
direct democracy
system of government in which people gather at mass meetings to decide on government matters
representative democracy
system of government in which peopleekect leaders to make laws
philosopher
thinker who seeks wisdon and ponders questions about life
Crete
Greek island southest of mainland in the southern Aegean Sea
Mycenae
Ancient city in Greece
Peloponnesus
A peninsula in southern Greece
Agamemnon
the Mycenaean king in Greek mythology who used trickery to win the Trojan War
Athens
an ancient city-state; a city-state in early Greece which developed into an emerging democracy; boys were given a well-rounded education that included academics, sports, and music
Solon
a Greek man who reformed society in Athens by canceling farmers' debts and freeing those who had become slaves; he also changed the government of Athens to allow all male citizens to participate in the assembly and law courts
Peisistratus
Greek tyrant who seized power in 560 B.C.; he divided large estates among landless farmers and gave jobs and money to the poor
Cleisthenes
Greek leader who came to power in 508 B.C. and is credited with making the government of Athens a democracy
Persia
The conventional European designation of the country now known as Iran
Marathon
plain located a short distance from Athens where the Athenians defeated the Persians; according to legend, an Athenian messenger ran 25 miles from here to Athens to deliver news of the Greek victory before he collapsed and died
Thermopylae
a narrow mountain pass where the Greeks valiantly fought but lost a battle against the Persians
Salamis
the strait where the Greeks attacked and destroyed almost the entire Persian fleet in a ferocious battle
Plataea
a site northwest of Athens where the largest Greek army ever assembled crushed the Persian army and saved their homeland in 479 B.C.
Cyrus the Great
ruler who united the Persians into a powerful empire in the 6th century B.C.
Darius
Persian king who came to the throne in 521 B.C. and reorganized the Persian government by dividing the empire into 20 states
Xerxes
the son of Darius, this Persian king took the throne in 486 B.C. after the death of his father; he invaded Greece but was eventually defeated
Themistocles
an Athenian general who came up with a plan for the Spartans and the Athenians to fight the Persians
Delos
a Greek island in the Aegean Sea where the Delian League had its headquarters
Pericles
great Athenian general and statesman who guided Athens from 461 B.C. until 429 B.C.; he expanded democracy by allowing lower-class male citizens to run for political office; he also supported artists, architects, and philosophers
Aspasia
a well-educated woman who, though not a native Athenian, moved freely about Athens and taught public speaking; she helped shape Athenian politics as an advisor to Pericles; Plato was also influenced by her work
Why did the war start?
Greek land would clash with Persian land. The Greeks helped the Greeks in Asia Minor to rebel against their Persian rulers. It failed. King Darius decided that the mainland Greeks had to be stopped from interferingin the Persian Empire.
What happened to the Persians after the war?
It ended because:
high taxes
fought over rule
Greeks weekened empire
Alexander the Great conquered
What do you have to do to be a Greek citizen?
male
free
land owner
born there
Daily Life in Athens (explain)
A- largest city-state in Greece 285,000
B- Most families had at least 1 slave
C- Diet was simple, but healthy
D- Athens-- major trading center
Pericles' Funeral Oration (describe)
speech that focused on democracy & gives Athens courage to fight
Why did Athens lose?
severe plague
Spartan alliance with Persia
Men duties
work
excercise
assembly meetings
Women duties
household chores
no political rights
What is the Delian League?
Athens joined forces with other city-states to form a league to protect them from Persia
What is the Parthen?
Made by Pericles, During the rebuilding stages of his rule, it cost about 3million today to build, over 200,000 tons of marble form a nearby mountain, and spent over 15 years to complete
Main reason of Peloponnesian War
The Athenian Empire became richer and powerful and the other city-states grew suspicious. Led by Sparta they joined forces against Athens. It is called the Peleponnesian War because it was located in the Peloponnesian