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39 Cards in this Set

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When psychologists talk of personality, what do they mean?
When psychologists talk of personality, they mean a dynamic concept describing the growth and development of a person's whole psychological system.
Define personality.
Personality is the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others.
What does heredity refer to with regards to personality determinants.
Heredity refers to those factors that were determined at conception. The heredity approach argues that the ultimate explanation of an individual's personality is the molecular structure of the genes, located in the chromosomes.
Traits such as shyness, fear, and distress are most likely caused by what factors?
Recent studies of young children lend support to the power of heredity. Evidence demonstrates that traits such as shyness, fear, and distress are most likely caused by inherited genetic characteristics.
What characteristics are generally considered to be either completely or substantially influenced by who your parents are; that is, by their biological, physiological, and inherent psychological makeup?
Physical stature, facial attractiveness, gender, temperament, muscle composition and reflexes, energy level, and biological rhythms are characteristics generally considered to be either completely or substantially influenced by who your parents are; that is, by their biological, physiological, and inherent psychological makeup.
What are the factors that exert pressures on our personality formation?
Among the factors that exert pressures on our personality formation are the culture in which we are raised; our early conditioning; the norms among our family;, friends, and social groups; and other influences that we experience. These environmental factors play a substantial role in shaping our personalities.
What are the three personality determinants?
The three personality determinants are:
1. Heredity
2. Environment
3. Situation
What are personality traits?
Personality traits are enduring characteristics that describe an individual's behavior.
What does MBTI stand for?
MBTI stands for Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator.
What is the Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)?
The Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types.
Define extroversion.
Extroversion is a personality dimension describing someone who is sociable, gregarious, and assertive.
Define agreeableness.
Agreeableness is a personality dimension that describes someone who is good-natured, cooperative, and trusting.
Define conscientiousness.
Conscientiousness is a personality dimension that characterizes someone who is responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized.
Define emotional stability.
Emotional stability is a personality dimension that characterizes someone as calm, self-confident, secure (positive) versus nervous, depressed, and insecure (negative).
Define openness to experience.
Openness to experience is a personality dimension that characterizes someone in terms of imagination, sensitivity, and curiosity.
On the Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator test what do the letters E or I stand for?
E = Extroverted
I= Introverted
On the Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator test what do the letters S or N stand for?
S=Sensing
N=Intuitive
On the Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator test what do the letters T or F stand for?
T=Thinking
F=Feeling
On the Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator test what do the letters P or J stand for?
P=Perceiving
J=Judging
What is the Big Five Model of the MBTI?
List the five.
1. Extroversion
2. Agreeableness
3. Conscientiousness
4. Emotional stability
5. Openness to experience
Regarding major personality attributes, what are Internals?
Internals are individuals who believe that they control what happens to them.
Regarding major personality attributes, what are Internals?
Internals are individuals who believe that they control what happens to them.
Regarding personality attributes, who/what are externals?
Externals are individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance.
Define locus of control.
Locus of control is the degree to which people believe that they are the masters of their own fate.
What is Machiavellianism.
Machiavellianism is the degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means.
What is self-esteem?
Self-esteem is an individual's degree of liking or disliking themselves.
Define self-monitoring.
Self-monitoring is a personality trait that measures an individual's ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors.
Define a type "A" personality.
Type A personality: Aggressive involvement in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time and, if necessary, against the opposing efforts of other things or other people. (Donald Trump)
List 5 characteristics of type "A" personalities.
Type "A's":
1. are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly;
2. feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place;
3. strive to think or do two or more things at once;
4. cannot cope with leisure time;
5. are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire.
List 4 characteristics of type "B" personalities.
Type "B's":
1. never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience;
2. feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments;
3. play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost;
4. can relax without guilt.
Define personality-job fit theory.
Personality-job fit theory identifies six personality types and proposes that the fit between personality type and occupational environment determines satisfaction and turnover.
When dealing with emotions, what is affect?
Affect is a broad range of feelings that people experience.
Define emotions.
Emotions are intense feelings that are directed at someone or something.
Define moods.
Moods are feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus.
Define emotional labor.
Emotional labor is a situation in which an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions.
Define felt emotions.
Felt emotions are an individual's actual emotions.
Define displayed emotions.
Displayed emotions are emotions that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job.
Research has identified six universal emotions. List them.
Research has identified six universal emotions:
1. anger
2. fear
3. sadness
4. happiness
5. disgust
6. surprise.
Some people have severe difficulty in expressing their emotions and understanding the emotions of others. What do psychologists call this condition?
Some people have severe difficulty in expressing their emotions and understanding the emotions of others. Psychologists call this condition alexithymia (which is Greek for "lack of emotion"). People who suffer from alexithymia rarely cry and are often seen by others as bland and cold.