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15 Cards in this Set

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asexual reproduction
a type of reproduction - fission, budding, and regeneration - in which a new organism is produced from one organism and has DNA identical to the parent organism.
chromosome
structure in a cell's nucleus that contains hereditary material.
diploid
cell whose similar chromosomes occur in pairs.
DNA
dexoyribonucleic acid; the genetic material of all organisms; made up of two twisted strands of sugar-phosphate molecules and nitrogen bases.
egg
haploid sex cell formed in the female reproductive organs.
fertilization
in sexual reproduction, the joining of a sperm and an egg.
gene
section of DNA on a chromosome that contains instructions for making specific proteins.
haploid
cell that has half the number of chromosomes as body cells.
meiosis
reproductive process that produces four haploid sex cells from one diploid cell and ensures offspring will have the same number of chromosomes as the parent organisms.
mitosis
cell process in which the nucleus divides to form two nuclei identical to each other, and identical to the original nucleus, in a series of steps (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase).
mutation
any permanent change in a gene or chromosome of a cell; may be beneficial, harmful, or have little effect on an organism.
RNA
ribonucleic acid; a type of nucleic acid that carries codes for making proteins from the nucleus to the ribosomes.
sexual reproduction
a type of reproduction in which two sex cells, usually an egg and a sperm, join to form a zygote, which will develop into a new organism with a unique identity.
sperm
haploid sex cell formed in the male reproductive organs; in humans, male reproductive cells produced in the testes.
zygote
new diploid cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg; will divide by mitosis and develop into a new organism.