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17 Cards in this Set

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movement across the cell membrane that does not require energy from the cell
passive transport
difference in the concentration of a substance across a space
concentration gradient
condition in which the concentration of a substance is equal throughout a space
equilibrium
movement of substance from high concentration to low concentration
diffusion
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
osmosis
solution that causes cell to shrink due to osmosis
hypertonic solution
solution that causes cell to swell due to osmosis
hypotonic solution
solution that produces no change in cell volume due to osmosis
isotonic solution
doughnut shaped transport protein with a polar pore through which ions can pass
ion channel
transport proteins that can bind to a specific substance on one side of cell membrane, carry the substance across the cell membrane, and release it on th other side
carrier proteins
when carrier proteins transport specific substances down their concentration gradient
facilitated diffusion
transport of substances across the cell membrane against their concentration gradients; requires cell to use energy
active transport
most important membrane pump in animal cells; carrier protein; transports 3 sodium ions, out of cell and 2 potassium ions into cell
sodium-potassium pump
movement of a substance into a cell by a vesicle
endocytosis
movement of a substance by a vesicle to the outside of a cell
exocytosis
protein that binds to a specific signal molecule enabling cell to respond to signal molecule
receptor protein
amplifies signal molecule
second messenger