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32 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
cell
the smallest unit that can carry on all the processes of life.
cell theory
All living organisms are composed of one or more cells
Cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism
Cells come only from the reproduction of exsisting cells.
plasma membrane (cell membrane)
covers a cell's surface and acts as a barrier between the inside and the outside of a cell
cytoplasm
the region of the cell that is within the plasma membrane and the includes the fluid, the cytoskeleton and all of the organelles (except the nucleus)
cytosol
the part of the cytoplasm that includes molecules and small particles, such as ribosomes, but not the membrane bound organelles.
nucleus
the control center of the cell. A membrane bound organelle that contains the DNA. most functions in a eukaryotic cell controlled by this.
prokaryotes
are organisms that lack a membrane bound nucleus and membrane bound organelles
eukaryotes
organisms made of one or more cells that have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
organelles
well defined, intracellular bodies that perform a specific function for the cell. (like tiny organs)
tissue
a group of similar cells and their products that carry out a specific function
organs
groups of tissues and their products that perform a particular job in a organism
organ system
a group of organs that accomplish relate tasks.
phospholipid bilayer
the foundation of the cell membrane. the phosphlipids line up so that their heads point outward toward the water and their tails point inward away from water
chromosomes
structures in the nucleus made up of DNA and protein
nuclear envelope
made up of two phospholipid bilayers that covers the nucleus
nucleolus
the site where DNA is concentrated when it is in the process of making ribosomal RNA
Ribosomes
are organelles made of protein and RNA the direct protein synthesis in the cytoplasm.
mitocondria
the power house of the cell. tiny organelles that transfer enery from organic molecules to ATP. (has own DNA)
Endoplasmic Reticulum
(ER)
a system of membranous tubes and sacs caled cisternae.
Golgi apparatus
another system of flattened membranous sac. responsible for packaging and shipping the proteins.
lysosomes
are vesicles that bud from the golgi apparatus and contain digestive enzymes
cytoskeleton
a network of thin tubes and filaments that crisscrosses the cytosol. they give shape to the cell and are used as internal tracks.
microtubules
hollow tubes made of a protein called tubilin
cilia
a hairlike structure that extends from the surface of a cell where they help in movement. short and present in large numbers
flagella
extends from the surface of a cell where they help in movement. longer and usually few in number (like the tail in a sperm cell)
centrioles
consist of two short cylinders of microtubules are right agles to each other and are situated in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope
cell wall
a rigid layer that lies outside the cell's plasma membrane made of cellulose a stiff matrix of proteins and carbohydrates
central vacuole
a large fluid filled organelle that stores water and enzymes, metabolic wastes, and other materials.
plastids
are organelles that, like mitocondria, are surrounded by a double membrane and contain their own DNA
chloroplasts
use light energy to make carbohydrates fro carbon dioxide and water.
thylakoids
a system of flattened, membranous sacs in chloroplasts
chlorophyll
inside the thylakoids are the main molecule that absorbs light and captures light energy for the cell