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54 Cards in this Set

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A type of root system common in seedless vascular plants and grasses: characterized by many similar sized, small and short roots
Fibrous Root System
Chlorenchyma ground tissue located between the upper and lower layers of epidermis; site of photosynthesis in leaves
Mesophyll
A root that can shorten to pull a plant deeper into the soil
Contractile Root
The arrangement of vascular bundles in a circle around the pith; common in most gymnosperm and dicot stems
Eustele
The same as a cross section
Transverse Section
One of two small leaflike flaps on a petiole at the basal part of a leaf
Stipule
Elongated, aligned mesophyll cells beneath the epidermis; contains most of the chloroplasts in a leaf
Palisade Mesophyll
A leaf arrangement with one leaf per node
Alternate
A patttern of leaf veins in most dicots and ferns, also known as reticulate venation, in which leaf veins form branching networks
Netted Venation
A leaf arrangement with two leaves per node
Opposite
One of two epidermal cells on either side of a leafe pore
Guard Cell
A leaf with a single, undivided blade; may be toothed or lobed
Simple Leaf
The region in plant roots where cells begin specializing in structure and function into different cell types, region where some epidermal cells form root hairs
Zone of Maturation
A region of the shoot apical meristem in the form of a three dimensional ring around the central mother zone, has cells that divide rapidly to become leaf primordia and parts of stem
Peripheral Zone
A cell layer immediately encircling the stele that gives rise to lateral roots
Pericycle
A bulge on the flank of a shoot apical meristem that appears during leaf developement and develops into a leaf primordium
Leaf Buttress
A leaf arrangement with three or more leaves per node
Whorled
The region in plant roots consisting of the root apical meristem and the three primary meristems
Zone of Cell Division
These cells surround the vascular bundle in flowering plants. In C4 plants, they are large and photosynthetic and the site of calvin cycle reactions
Bundle Sheath Cell
A horizontal, underground stem. Compare with stolon
Rhizome
A modified adventitious root that arises from stem tissue and provides additional support for a plant. Found on epiphytes such as orchieds and prop roots of corn plants
Aerial Root
Consists of strands of vascular tissue composed of xylem and phloem; common in stems of all vascular plants
Vascular Bundles
A modified stem structure in which starch accumulates in thickened, fleshy leaves attached to the stem
Bulb
A modified leaf at the base of a flower
Bract
Mutualistic associations between vascular plant roots and soil fungi
Mycorrhizae
The spherical center of a root apical meristem that contains the initials
Quiescent Center
The layer of cells around the stele that regulates the flow of substances between cortex and vascular tissue
Endodermis
A region of dividing cells at each internode that allows the stem to grow rapidly all along its length, common in grasses
Intercalary Meristem
The underground stem composed primarily of starch filled parenchyma cells that form at the tips of stolons or rhizomes
Tuber
Several layers of cells that protect the root apical meristem as the root pushes between soil particles
Root Cap
An explanation of shoot growth that describes the initials of the shoot apical meristem as forming several cell layers
Cell Layer Model
According to the cell layer model of shoot growth, the outer layer of cells in an apical meristem; equivalant to the outer part of the peripheral zone
Tunica
Parasitic root that penetrates stems and roots of other plants to obtain water, minerals, and organic molecules
Haustorium
The region of plant roots where derivatives stop dividing and begin to grow in length
Zone of Elongation
Adjective describing a leaf that lacks a petiole and is attached directly to the stem
Sessile
A continuous vascular cylinder that surrounds a core of pith in the stems of ferns and horsetails
Siphonostele
The central cylinder of a root or stem, which is surrounded by cortex
Stele
A region of the shoot apical meristem below the central mother zone, which produces cells that become the part of the ground meristem that produces pith
Pith Zone
The division of cells perpendicular to a surface
Anticlinal Division
A horzontal cut at a right angle to the long axis of a structure, aka a transverse section
Cross Section
A mutualistic association between roots and fungi in which the fungi do not penetrate plant roots
Ectomycorrhizae
A root system common in dicots and gymnosperms; features a large main taproot
Taproot System
A small vascular bundle at each stem node that leaves the main vascular system of the stem and pass through a connecting petiole into the leaf blade
Leaf Trace
Growth stimulated by touch; typical or tendrils
Thigmotropism
An adjective describing plants that lose all their leaves at certain seasons of the year
Deciduous
A branch root produced by a taproot
Lateral Root
A type of mutualistic association in which the fungi penetrates plant roots and produce branching structures that press up against the plant cell membranes to obtain nutrients
Endomycorrhizae
Roots that arise from unusual places, such as a stem
Adventitious Root
A pattern of leaf veins in most monocots and gymnospers, also called the striate venation, in which veins run parrallel with each other and leaf edges
Parallel Venation
Provides oxygen for plants in swampy areas. Aka a air root, common in mangrove and bald cypress trees
Pneumatophore
The region in a siphonostele where vascular tissue branches off from the stele to enter a leaf
Leaf Gap
Mutually beneficial, as in root associations with other organisms such as soil fungi
Mutualistic
A region of the shoot apical meristem containing cells that divide infrequently
Central Mother Cell Zone
A sharp modified stem that arises from an axillary bud where a leaf joins a stem
Thorn