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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List the seven dietary guidelines for Americans.
Eat a variety of foods.
Balance the foods you eat with physical activity--maintain or improve your weight.
Choose a diet with plenty of grain products, vegetables and fruits.
Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat and cholesterol.
Choose a diet moderate in sugars.
Choose a diet moderate in salt and sodium.
If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation.
Name two reasons why grains, vegetables and fruits are important to the diet
They are important sources of vitamins, minerals and complex carbohydrates (starch and dietary fiber) and they are low in fat.
Explain the differences between monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, saturated fat, and trans-fatty acids.
Because saturated fats raise cholesterol levels, mono-and polyunsaturated fats reduce cholesterol when they replace saturated fats. Trans-fatty acids are a type of unsaturated fat that also raise blood cholesterol levels.
What are two myths about sugar?
sugar eliminates weight problems, and diets high in sugars cause hyperactivity and diabetes.
Why should healthy adults avoid too much sodium or salt?
Higher amounts of sodium are associated with higher blood pressure, and there is no way to tell who might develop high blood pressure from too much sodium. Because consuming less sodium or salt is not harmful, healthy adults should limit their sodium intake to help avoid higher blood pressure.
What benefits can Americans expect by following the seventh Dietary Guideline?
Avoid addiction and reduce chronic disease risks
What is the rationale for the Food Guide Pyramid?
It helps consumers meet their nutrient needs without getting too much fat or added sugar. The pyramid is a practical way to apply the guideline "Eat a variety of foods."
What is the recommended range of servings for the grain and breads? Vegetables? Fruits? Milk? Meat? Fats, oils and sweets?
Grains: 6 to 11
Vegetables: 3 to 5
Fruits: 2 to 4
Milk: 2 to 3
Meat: 5 to 7 ounces
Fats, oils and sweets: no specific number is recommended, but they should be eaten sparingly
1. If a healthy person is eating a varied diet as recommended in the Pyramid, what is the need for a vitamin and mineral supplement?
Supplements are probably not needed.
2. How good are supplements at providing the nutrients that someone might be lacking in his or her diet?
Most people who choose supplements for themselves don't know what their specific nutrient weaknesses are. Thus it is almost completely by chance that supplements compensate for vitamins or minerals actually low in the diet.
3. Are supplements safe?
Vitamin supplements 100 percent of the Daily Values are usually safe, but the levels of nutrients in supplements are determined by the manufacturer and vary widely.
Why might you have to adjust the percentages of total calories, total fats, etc. that are found on the label?
The percentages are based on a diet of 2000 calories, and if you require more or less than this number, you will have to adjust the percentages accordingly.
1. Look at the labels at the beginning of this objective. Which food is highest in saturated fat? Highest in fiber? Highest in calcium?
The TV dinner is highest in total fat (and saturated fat). This isn't necessarily a problem. This is a full meal, and what is eaten the rest of the day may be balanced very well with this amount of fat.

The kidney beans are highest in fiber.

The skim milk is highest in calcium.

The green beans aren't particularly high in nutrients. However, they are low in calories and any vegetable or fruit contributes some nutrients and helps toward the Five-a-Day goal.
2. Fred is 6'2", weighs 190 pounds, and is very active in sports. He probably needs about 3500 calories each day. How would he adjust the interpretation of information on Daily Values for total fat? Saturated fat? Vitamin A? Iron?
He could have more than 100 percent of the Daily Values for total fat and saturated fat and still be within the guidelines for a healthy diet. (At the 3500-calorie level, 115 g of fat is 30 percent of the calories.) For vitamin A and iron, he should aim for 100 percent of the Daily Value, regardless of his calorie intake.
What is the most practical approach to weight that people can take?
To aim for their individual healthy weight, or when they feel good and can move comfortably.
What is the biggest problem with the cultural pressure to be thin?
The "thin is in" attitude encourages many health problems (physical and emotional) that cause the body to deteriorate and sometimes end in death.
1. What is the theoretical energy balance principle?
When the calories ingested equals the calories spent, weight remains the same.
2. What are the two main ways to alter energy balance?
1. Change the number of calories ingested.
2. Change the number of calories expended.
What's one disadvantage to dieting?
The weight comes back, rapid weight loss is unhealthy and ineffective, and the failure to stick to a diet often causes feelings of guilt or depression.
1. What is the recommended maximum rate of weight loss per week? Why?
One half to one pound, to allow for burning fat without using up lean tissue or temporarily losing weight by decreased water retention.
2. What are the characteristics of effective diets?
They can be followed indefinitely; they are nutritionally adequate, varied, and slightly lower in calories than before; the foods are normal, readily available, affordable and fit your tastes; and the changes from what you have been doing are small.
3. What is the non-diet approach to weight?
The goal is health and fitness, not some arbitrary weight loss or ideal weight. Develop a healthy (non-obsessive) relationship with food. Eat regular meals and enough food so you don't get too hungry. Appreciate diversity in body shapes and sizes (including acceptance of your own). Be active.
What's one problem with grazing?
Generally, people who graze don't meet their mineral, vitamin and fiber needs as well; their diets are more likely to include excess fat, sugar and calories.
List five suggestions to help people eat nutritious meals and snacks.
Plan your food intake; don't graze
Plan a meal around the main dish, adding foods from other groups
Eat colorful meals
Make sure your meals have a variety in taste, texture, etc.
Improve your cooking skills
Allow for "planned-overs"
Use some convenience foods with additional preparation steps (to save time)
Take time to eat
List five suggestions for grocery shopping.
Plan your meals before you shop
Make a list of what you need
Shop when you aren't hungry
Be aware of marketing strategies (end-of-aisle displays, eye-level location of national brands)
Take advantage of seasonal buys and locally grown foods
Pay attention to unit pricing and whether you have room to store the food and can eat it before it spoils
Buy store brands when they suit your purpose
1. What personal hygiene practices help prevent food poisoning?
Wash hands often and use latex gloves if you have a cut on your hand.
What is cross-contamination and how can you avoid it?
Cross-contamination refers to using the same utensils for raw meats and also with other foods that will be eaten raw; use separate utensils or wash them with hot soapy water.
How do you know that ground beef and poultry are done?
It will have no pink color left and the juices will run clear.
List ways to apply the "hot foods hot, cold foods cold" principle.
Refrigerate groceries promptly, refrigerate leftovers promptly, don't keep foods warm very long while waiting to serve them. Refrigerate or heat large quantities of foods in many smaller containers, to get them through the danger zone as quickly as possible. Don't thaw foods at room temperature. Be careful about refreezing foods.