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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Biological Needs
Basic physical needs (e.g., food, rest, shelter, and recreation).
Personality
The knowledge, attitudes, and attributes that make up the unique human being.
Positive Mental Attitude (PMA)
A person with a PMA usually responds favorably to the job, people, and situations.
Motivation
A willingness to exert effort toward achieving a goal, stimulated by the effort's ability to ffulfill an individual need.
Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's theory of motivation, which suggests that employee needs are arranged in priority order such that lower-order needs must be satisfied before higher-order needs become motivating.
Security Needs
Desire for protection against danger and life's uncertainties.
Social Needs
Desire for love and affection and affiliation with something worthwhile.
Motivation Factors
Elements intrinsic in the job that promote job performance.
Self-Respect Needs
Desire for recognition, achievement, status, and a sense of accomplishment.
Self-fulfillment Needs
Desire to use one's abilities to the fullest extent.
Motivation-Hygiene Theory
Herzberg's theory that factors in the work enviroment primarily influence the degree of job dissatisfaction, while intrinsic job content factors influence the amount of employee motivation.
hygiene Factors
Elements in the work environment that, if positive, reduce dissatisfaction but do not tend to motivate.
Expectancy Theory
Theory of motivation that holds that employees perform better when they believe such efforts lead to desired rewards.
Equity Theory
Explains how people strive for fairness in the workplace.
Law of Effect
Says that behavior with favorable consequences is repeated; behavior with unfavorable consequences tends to disappear.
Extinction
Good behavior occurs less frequently or disappears because it is not recognized.
Positive Reinforcement
making behavior occur more often because it is linked to a positive consequence.
Punishment
Making behavior occur less frequently because it is lined to an undesireable consquence.
Negative Reinforcement
Making behavior occur more frequently by removing an undesirable consequence.
Theory X
Assumption that most employees dislike work, avoid responsibility, and must be coerced to do their jobs.
Theory Y
Assumption that most employees enjoy work, seek responsibility, and can self-direct.
Job Redesign
The belief that well-designed jobs lead to increased motivation.
Job Rotation
The process of switching job tasks among employees in a work group.
Job Enlargement
Increasing the number of tasks an individual performs.
Job Enrichment
Job design that helps fulfill employees' higher-level needs by giving those employees more challenging tasks and more decision-making responsibility for their jobs.
Management by Objectives (MBO)
Participative management system through which jointly set objectives are used for performance appraisal.