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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
an internal membrane-enclosed structure found in eukaryotic cells
property of exhibiting a variety of colors when stained with a simple stain
vegetative cell
a cell that is actively metabolizing nutrients
conjugation pilus
a type of pilus that attaches two bacteria together and provides a means for the exchange of genetic material
a comma-shape bacterium
prokaryotic cell
a cell that lacks a cell nucleus; includes all bacteria
having two or more flagella at one or both ends of a bacterial cell
(also called polysome) a long chain of ribosomes attached at different points along an mRNA molecule
a membrane-bound inclusion in cells
(1) a protective structure outside the cell wall, secreted by the organism (2) a network of connective fibers covering organs such as the lymph nodes
simple diffusion
the net movement of particles from a region of higher to one of lower concentration; does not require energy from a cell
active transport
movement of molecules or ions across a membrane against a concentration gradient; requires expenditure of energy from ATP
cell wall
outer layer of most bacterial, algal, fungal, and plant cells that maintains the shape of the cell
slime layer
a thin protective structure loosely bound to the cell wall that protects the cell against drying, helps trap nutrients, and sometimes binds cells together
axial filament
(also called endoflagellum) a subsurface filament attached near the ends of the cytoplasmic cylinder of spirochetes that causes the spirochete body to rotate like a corkscrew
group translocation reaction
an active transport process in bacteria that chemically modifies substance so it cannot diffuse out of the cell
the semifluid substance inside a cell excluding, in eukaryotes, the cell nucleus
having flagella distributed all over the surface of a bacterial cell
a subsurface filament attached near the ends of the cytoplasmic cylinder of spirochetes that causes the spirochete body to rotate like a corkscrew
nuclear region
(also called nucleoid) central location of DNA, RNA, and some proteins in bacteria; not a true nucleus
ingestion of solids into cells by meaens of the formation of vacuoles
attachment pilus
(also called fimbria) type of pilus that helps bacteria adhere to surfaces
process in which vesicles form by invagination of the plasma membrane to move substances into eukaryotic cells
a Gram-positive bacterium from which the cell wall has been removed
a long, thin, helical appendage of certain cells that provides a means of locomotion
part of the outer layer of the cell wall in Gram-negative bacteria (endotoxin)
a spherical bacterium
the internal membranes of photosynthetic bacteria and cyanobacteria
endosymbiotic theory
holds that the organelles of eukaryotic cells arose form prokayotes that came to live, in a symbiotic relationship, inside the eukaryote-to-be cell
site for protein syntehsis consisting of RNA and protein, located in the cytoplasm
a resistant, dormant structure, formed inside some bacteria, such as Bacillus and Clostridium, that can survive adverse conditions
periplasmic space
the space between the cell membrane and the outer membrane in Gram-negative bacteria that is filled with periplasm
selectively permeable
able to prevent the passage of certain specific molecules and ions while allowing others through
a bacterial cell without flagella
a nonrandom movement of an organism toward or away from a chemical
a rodlike bacterium
a toxin incorporated in Gram-negative bacterial cell walls and released when the bacterium dies
eukaryotic cell
a cell that has a distinct cell nucleus and other membrane-bound structures
a bacterial cell with a single flagellum
fluid-mosaic model
current model of membrane structure in which proteins are dispersed in a phosopholipid bilayer
outer membrane
a bilayer membrane, forming part of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria
a special type of diffusion in which water molecules move from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration across a selectively permeable membrane
metachromatic granule
(volutin) a polyphosphate granule that exhibits metachromasia
a Gram-negative bacterium that lacks the cell wall but has not lysed
a tiny hollow projection used to attach bacteria to surfacess or for conjugation
osmotic pressure
the pressure required to prevent the net flow of water molecules by osmosis
phenomenon in which bacteria vary widely in form, even within a single culture under optimal conditions
an inclusion that is not bounded by a membrane and contains compacted substances that do not dissolve in the cytoplasm
lipid A
toxic substance found in the cell wall of a Gram-negative bacteria
(1) a thin layer of bacteria adhering to the air-water interface of a broth culture by their attachment pili (2) a strengthened plasma membrane of a protozoan cell (3) film over the surface of a tooth at the beginning of plaque formation
(also called murein) a structural polymer in the bacterial cell wall that forms a supporting net
a solution containing a concentration of dissolved material lower than that within a cell
a solution containing a concentration of dissolved material greater than that within a cell
cell membrane
(also called plasma membrane) a selectively permeable lipoprotein bilayer that forms the boundary between a bacterial cell's cytoplasm and its environment
a nonrandom movement of an organism toward or away from light
a granule or vesicle found in the cytoplasm of a bacterial cell
golgi apparatus
an organelle in eukaryotic cells that receives, modifies, and transports substances coming form the endoplasmic reticulum
process by which vesicles inside a eukaryotic cell fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents from the eukaryotic cell
teichoic acid
a polymer attached to peptidoglycan in Gram-positive cell walls
term used to refer to all substances containing polysaccharides found external to the cell wall
fluid containing the same concentration of dissolved materials as is in a cell; causes no change in cell volume
(also called metachromatic granule) polyphosphate granules
irregularly shaped naturally occurring bacteria with defective cell walls
corkscrew-shaped motile bacteria
a flexible, wavy-shaped bacterium
facilitated diffusion
diffusion across a membrane area of higher concentration to lower with the assistance of a carrier molecule, but not requiring ATP
the presence of flagella at both ends of the bacterial cell