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22 Cards in this Set

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p 375
INTRODUCTION
How long did it last?
1418 to 1620
p 375
INTRODUCTION
What did European Explorers do at this time?
made many daring voyages that changed world history
p 375
INTRODUCTION
What were reasons for these voyages?
1. find sea routes to east Asia (Indies)
2. Columbus found "New World".
p 376
REASONS FOR AGE OF EXPLORATIN
What were 2 main reasons?
1. Europeans had motives for exploring new world
2. advances in knowledge and technology made this possible
p 376
REASONS FOR AGE OF EXPLORATIN
What were motives for exploration?
1. Trade with East was expensive. Desire to find new trade routes to Asia
2. Europeans wanted spices from Asia
3. Muslim and Italian merchants controlled trade routes. Problems arose when Muslims closed trade routes. They raised prices. Monarchs wanted to break their hold.
4. People excited for opportunity for new knowledge -- fame, wealth, adventure, claim new land, desire to spread Christianity.
p 377
ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE & TECHNOLOGY
When did it begin?
1. in middle of the Renaissance
p 377
ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE & TECHNOLOGY
What were some advances?
1. advances made it easier to explorer
2. one advance was in cartography (brook written by Ptolemy) By 1500's earth was shown as sphere. 1507, North and South America and Asia shown on map.
3. most important Renaissance geographer, Gerardus Mercator, created maps using longitude and latitude.
4. improved ship design. By 1400's, made caravels -- small fast ships easy to maneuver, & used triangular sales.
5. new navigational tools -- compass much improved.
6. improved weapons
p 378
PORTUGAL BEGINS AGE OF EXPLORATION
KEY EXPLORERS
1. Prince Henry, son of King John 1, encouraged exploration.
2. In 1418, Prince Henry started school of mapmakers and sailors.
3. In 1488, Bartolomeu Dias became first European to go around southern tip of Africa.
4. In 1497, Vasco da Gama, sailed southern tip of Africa, crossed Indian Ocean.
5. In 1500, Pedro Cabral, sailed to Brazil. Wanted to go to India. In Calicut, he established trading post.
p 379
PORTUGAL BEGINS AGE OF EXPLORATION
IMPACT OF PORTUGUESE EXPLORATION
1. changed European understanding of the world
1.1 brought back gold and slaves
1.2 found sea route to India
1.3 brought back spices, jewels, silk
1.4 Portuguese took control of eastern trade routes, seized Goa seaport in India, attached town on east coast of Africa
1.5 Portuguese took control of Muslim trade routes. Prices dropped.
1.6 In 1500's, Portugal established colonies in Brazil, spread Christianity
1.7 Portugal brought millions of slaves from West Africa to Brazil.
p 380
SPAIN'S EARLY EXPLORATIONS
What was did King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella want?
- make their country powerful
- wanted to beat Portugal in race to control wealth of Asia
- wanted to spread Christianity
- to do this, they sponsored explorations
p 380
SPAIN'S EARLY EXPLORATIONS
What did King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella do?
- sponsored Christopher Columbus
p 380
SPAIN'S EARLY EXPLORATIONS
What did Columbus do?
- Columbus turend to Spain for support after refused by Portugal.
- claimed island in the Caribbean Sea for Spain
- called them Indians
- 1493 arrived back in Spain
- believed he sailed to India (West Indies)
p 380
SPAIN'S EARLY EXPLORATION
What did Ferdinand Magellan do?
- believed Columbus found new land and did not sail to West Indies, sailed to land mass between Europe and Asia
- could find strait through South America
- in 1519, he set sail with 5 ships, finally found strait of Magellan, at southern tip of South America.
- reached the phillipines
- 1 ship sailed around the world and returned to spain
p 380
SPAIN'S EARLY EXPLORATION
What was impact of early Spanish Exploration?
- changed view of world. Columbus showed existence of new world. Magellan showed route to West Indies.
- Spain got great wealth from settlements
- sent Europe new crops of sweet potatos and pineapples.
- for native peoples, it was devastating. Forced to become Christian, work as slaves. diseases.
- 1500 to 1800, Spanish brought many slaves from Africa.
p 382
LATER SPANISH EXPLORATION AND CONQUEST
What happened?
- conquistadors took native wealth. Spain took 1/5th of wealth
- 1519, Herman Cortes set out to present-day Mexico. Reached Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan. Aztec King, Montezuma, welcomed. Cortes took him as hostage. Cortes went away. Came back with army. Ended Aztec rule.
p 382
LATER SPANISH EXPLORATION AND CONQUEST
What were 4 factors the contributed to end of Aztec rule?
1. Aztec legend welcomed Cortes because they thought he was their God.
2. Cortes made allies with native enemies of Aztec.
3. Spanish horses and armor gave Spanish advantage
4. Spanish carried diseases that caused epidemics in Aztecs
p 383
LATER SPANISH EXPLORATION AND CONQUEST
What happened to Incas?
In 1532, Inca emperor greeted Spanish as guests. Pizarro launched a surprise attack. Pizarro got ransom and killed emperor.
p 382
LATER SPANISH EXPLORATION AND CONQUEST
What was impace of later Spanish exploration and conquest?
1. transformed Spain
2. foreign trade expanded
3. Spain became rich and powerful
4. food supply in Europe grew. As a result, population grew.
5. new items introduced -- chocolate and tobacco
6. in long run, gold and silver hurt Spain's economy -- inflation. Rulers spent money wastefully.
7. Spain introduced new animals into New World.
8. Spain destroyed 2 advanced civilizations -- Inca's and Aztecs.
p 384
EUROPEAN EXPLORATION OF NORTH AMERICA
Who dominated the early years of exploration? Who came next?
- spain and portugal were first
- England, France, Netherlands
p 384
EUROPEAN EXPLORATION OF NORTH AMERICA
Who were key figures?
1. Italian sailor John Cabot made first discovery for England. In 1497, he landed in what is now Canada.
2. Giovanni da Verrazano, in 1524, for France explored North Carolina to Canada. Gave France claims.
3. Henry Hudsun,. sailed for England, looking for NorthWest passage. Sailed into Hudson Bay. Laid the basis for English claims in Canada.
p 384
EUROPEAN EXPLORATION OF NORTH AMERICA
what was the impact?
1. did not find gold and other treasures, so less interest in starting colonies.
2. fishing boats came for cod and other fish
3. contributed to war between England and Spain. From 1577 to 1589, English raided Spanish ships. In 1588, King Philip II of Spain sent an armada to invade England. Defeat of Spanish armada marked change of power to England. England and Netherlands started more colonzation.
4. Sir Frances Drake claimed part of California for England.
p 386
IMPACT OF EXPLORATION ON EUROPEAN COMMERCE AND ECONOMIES
What were they?
1. dramatic
2. more goods, raw materials, and precious metals entered Europe.
3. map makers charted new lands
4. new centers of commerce developped in port cities which contributed to growth of capitalism
5. merchants gained great wealth
6. other people invested in these companies and profitted
7. money became more important
8. "market system" developed. The price was set by supply and demand. If less supply, higher price. If more supply, lower price.
9. people started working for wages, being hired.
10. start of cottage industry -- hire workers to tern raw materials into products -- clothes
11. birth of mercantilism -- reducing the amount a country bought and try to sell more
12. colonies were to only trade with their own country.