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45 Cards in this Set

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Acromion process
Lateral protrusion of the scapula that forms the highest point of the shoulder
Antrum
Any nearly closed cavity or chamber
Arthrocentesis
Surgical puncture and aspiration of a joint to obtain synovial fluid for diagnostic purposes
Arthroplasty
A plastic surgical reconstruction or replacement of a joint to restore mobility
Arthroscopy
Examination of the interior of a joint by insertion of an arthroscope through an incision
Articular cartilage
Covers the ends of many bones and serves a protective function
Bone depression
Any groove, opening or hollow space is a depression hey provide an entrance and exit for vessels and protection for the organs they hold: Fissure, Foramen, Fossa, Sinus, Sulcus
Bone process
Raised or projected areas are called processes. Often areas of attachment for ligaments or tendons: Condyle, Crest, Epicondyle, Head, Spine, Trochanter, Tubercle, Tuberosity
Bones store the minerals
calcium [Ca] and Phosphorus [P]
Bursa
Sacs of fluid that are located between the bones of a joint and the tendons that hold the muscles in place. They help cushion the joints when they move. Many Synovial joints have bursae (sing. Bursa)
Calcaneus
"Large bone making up the heel of the human foot is categorized as an irregular bone. It is also known as the heel bone."
Cartilage
Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. It is composed of collagenous fibers and/or elastin fibers, and cells called chondrocytes, all of which are embedded in a firm gel-like ground substance called the matrix. Cartilage is avascular (contains no blood vessels) and nutrients are diffused through the matrix. Cartilage serves several functions, including providing a framework upon which bone deposition can begin and supplying smooth surfaces for the movement of articulating bones. Cartilage is found in many places in the body including the joints, the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes and between intervertebral discs. There are three main types of cartilage: hyaline, elastic and fibrocartilage.
Dislocation
A bone that is completely out of its place in a joint
Endosteum
The inner aspect of a bone . Together with the periosteum they hold the cells responsible for bone remodeling: the Osteoblasts and the Osteoclasts.
Fascia
Tough fibrous covering of the muscles (and some nerves and blood vessels)
Fornix
Any vaultlike or arched body (vaginal fornix)
hematopoiesis
The continual formation of blood by the bones
Hilum
Recess, exit or entrance of a duct into a gland or of nerves and vessels into an organ (hilum of kidney)
Ilium
The superior and widest bone of the pelvis
Ischium
The lower portion of the pelvic bone
Joint
Joint or Articulations, are the parts of the body where two or more bones of the skeleton join. Joints provide range of motion (ROM). Examples are knee, which joins the tibia and the femur. Elbow, joins the humerus with the radius and ulna.
Ligament
Fibrous bands of tissue. Bones are attached to Bones by Ligaments.
Lumen
The space within an artery, vein, intestine, or tube (intestinal lumen, lumen of the arteries)
Malleolus
Process on the distal ends of the tibia and fibula
Matrix
Material between the cells (of the bones)
Metaphysis
The epiphysis and epiphyseal plates together form the metaphysis.
Muscle
Muscle (from Latin musculus "little mouse"[1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. It is classified as skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle[2], and its function is to produce force and cause motion, either locomotion or movement within internal organs. Much of muscle contraction occurs without conscious thought and is necessary for survival, like the contraction of the heart, or peristalsis (which pushes food through the digestive system). Voluntary muscle contraction is used to move the body, and can be finely controlled, like movements of the eye, or gross movements like the quadriceps muscle of the thigh. There are two broad types of voluntary muscle fibers, slow twitch and fast twitch. Slow twitch fibers contract for long periods of time but with little force while fast twitch fibers contract quickly and powerfully but fatigue very rapidly.
Muscles are attached to bones by:
Bands of tissue called Tendons
Musculoskeletal System
Consists of three interrelated parts: bones, articulations (joints), and muscles
Olecranon
A proximal projection of the ulna that forms the tip of the elbow
Osteoblasts
Cells that build bone
Osteoclasts
Cells that breakdown bone
Osteocytes
Mature bone cells
Periosteum
Outer covering of a bone
Prosthesis
An artificial body part that is constructed to replace missing limbs, eyes, and other body parts (pl. prostheses)
Pubis or Pubic bone
Lower anterior part of pelvic bone
Range of motion (ROM)
The range through which a joint can be extended and flexed. Different joints have different ROM. Synarthroses - No ROM are immovable joints joined together by fibrous cartilaginous tissue. Example: the suture lines of the skull. Amphiarthroses - Limited ROM- joints joined together by cartilage that are slightly moveable. Example: vertebrae of the spine or pubic bones. Diarthroses - Full ROM or also called synovial joints. joints have free movement. Examples: ball-and-socket joint (hip) and hinge joints (knees). Other examples include the elbows, wrists, shoulders, and ankles. Most complex of the joints. Many have bursae (singular bursa). These joints also have joint capsules that enclose the ends of the bones, a synovial membrane that lines the joint capsule and secretes fluid to lubricate the joint, articular cartilage that covers and protects the bone.
Rheumatoid arthritis
Inflammatory joint disease believed to be autoimmune in nature; occurs in a much younger population (ages 20-45)
Scoliosis
Lateral 'S' curve of the spine that can cause an individual lose inches in height
Spinal stenosis
Abnormal condition of narrowing of the spinal canal with attendant pain, sometimes caused by osteoarthritis or spondylolisthesis
Sprain
A traumatic injury to a joint involving the soft tissue; muscles, ligaments and tendons. Swelling, pain, and discoloration of the skin may be present. Severity is measured in grades
Strain
A lesser injury than a strain, usually described as an overuse or overstretching of a muscle.
Subluxation
Partial displacement of a bone at a joint. It can be congenital or an acquired condition.
Tendon
Muscles are attached to bones by strong fibrous bands of connective tissue called Tendons
Vestibule
A small space or cavity at the beginning of a canal (vestibule of the ear)