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5 Cards in this Set
What is behaviourism?
A psychological perspective first associated with John Watson
Revolt against the prevailing ways of doing psychology which Watson saw as being unscientific. Only observable factors such as behaviour should constitute valid data. Not introspection or mental states
Classical conditioning - Ivan Pavlov salivating dog
Instrumental conditioning (operant conditioning) - rat in a maze - BF Skinner - reinforcement
BF Skinner key figure in behaviourism focused on reinforcement and punishment, believed punishment is ineffective and unethical
Important = hugely influential, offers explanations for many behaviours
Important = Practical uses behaviour modification of unruly pupils eg Jones and Kazdin (1975) reward of chips and systematic de-sensitisation against phobias
What is operant conditioning?
A version of instrumental conditioning pioneeded by BF Skinner
An animal emits an operant (a behaviour which can be reinforced eg lever pulling)
Learning is a link (a contingency) between the animal's behaviour and condequences
Positive reinforcement (reward), negative reinforcement (removal of a loud noise)
Punishment - negative punishment (removal of something pleasant) and positive punishment (imposing a penalty)
Law of effect - behaviour that is rewarded with be learned and repeated
Criticism - ignores the role of cognitive processes in behaviour change
Criticism - low ecological validity
Example - Skinner box to perform operant conditioning on rats, pigeons etc
Important - can be used to test intelligence in animals
Important - behaviour modification on unruly pupils and systematic de-sensitisation of phobias
What is classical conditioning?
Also called Pavlovian conditioning after Ivan Pavlov
A form of learning in the behaviourist perspective
Based on an automatic response to a stimuli
Meat juice placed in the mouth of a dog produces saliva
Pairing of a neutral stimulus (bell) with the actual food arriving which produces saliva
After a number of pairings, the neutral stimulus alone is enough to produce the saliva
Conditional response = saliva produced from the bell
Unconditional response = saliva produced from the meat
As opposed to conditional conditioning
Important = used by Watson, the pioneer of the behaviourist perspective to back up his theories
Important = used in the treatment of phobias. called systematic desensitisation
Important = used to wean drug users off their drugs
What is category learning?
An example of the cognitive approach that sees learning as information processing
Arose from dissatisfaction with the behaviourism perspective
Humans and non-humans learn through categories of general relationships
Bruner et al. (1956) hypothesis testing underlays category learning. Different methods of hypothesis testing, including conservative focussing which tries to eliminate classes of categories
Murphy and Medlin (1985) found people use prior knowledge to find common themes of categories
Important = provides an example of the cognitive perspective
Criticism = Fodor and Chomsky. Categories can't be learned but are innate
Important = categories provide a way of organising our world
Examples = Mercado et al. (2000) category learning in dolphins
What is a genotype?
Collection of all of the genes within each cell of an individual