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89 Cards in this Set

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Cytology
Study of cellular structure and function
Cell Biology
Incorporates aspects of biology, chemistry, and physics.
Sex cells (germ/reproductive cells)
sperm of males or the oocytes of females
Somatic cells
Include all the other cells in the human body
Human body contains two general classes of cells
Sex cells, Somatic cells
extracellular fluid
Model cell that is surrounded by a watery medium
interstitial fluid
extracellular fluid in most tissues
cell membrane/plasma membrane
The outer boundary of the cell
Functions of the cell membrane/plasma membrane
Physical Isolation, Regulation of Exchange with the Environment, Sensitivity to the Environment, Structural Support
phospholipid bilayer
cell membrane
Integral proteins
part of the membrane structure and cannot be removed without damaging or destroying the membrane
Peripheral proteins
bound to the inner or outer surface of the membrane and are easily separated from it
Anchoring proteins
Attach the cell membrane to other structures and stabilize it position
recognition proteins
Cells of the immune system (Identifiers)recognize other cells as normal or abnormal based on the presence or absence of characteristic
Functions of Membrane Proteins
Anchoring proteins, recognition proteins (identifiers),enzymes, receptor proteins,carrier proteins and channels
Receptor proteins
bonds to a specific molecule as another substance and initiates the cellular response to the ligands
ligands
cell membrane are sensitive to the presence of specific extracellular molecules
Carrier proteins
bind solutes and transport them across the cell membrane.
Channel
integral proteins contain a central pore that forms a passageway completely across the cell membrane.
glycocalyx
The carbohydrate portions of these large molecules extend beyond the outer surface of the membrane, forming a layer
Functions of Glycocalyx
Lubrication and protection, anchoring and locomotion, specificity in binding and recognition
cytoplasm
material located between the cell membrane and the membrane surrounding the nucleus
cytosol/intracellular fluid
contains dissolved nutrients, ions,soluble and insoluble proteins, and waste products
organelles
structures suspended within the cytosol that perform functions within the cell
nonmembranous organelles
Not completely enclosed by membranes, and all of their components are in direct contact with the cytosol
membranous organelles
Isolated from the cytosol by phospholipid membranes, just as the cell membrane isolates the cytosol from the extracellular fluid
cytoskeleton
It provides an internal protein framework that gives the cytoplasm strength and flexibility
microfilaments
smallest of the cytoskeletal elements
actin
typical microfilaments are composed of the protein
intermediate filaments
???
Cytoskeleton- four components
microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules, and thick filaments
microtubules
all our cells contain microtubules, hollow tubes built from the globular protein tubulin
Tubulin
????
thick filaments
relatively massive bundles of subunits composed of the protein myosin
myosin
????
microvilli
Small finger shaped projections of the cell membrane on their exposed surfaces
Centrioles
all animal cells capable of undergoing cell division contain a pair
centrosome
The cytoplasm surrounding the centriles is the heart of the cytoskeletal system
cilia
relatively long slender extensions of the cell membrane
basal body
microtubules are anchored to a compact basal body situated just beneath the cell surface
small ribosomal subunit
functional ribosome consists of two subunits that are normally separate and distinct. Subunits contain special proteins and 1 of the RNA types
large ribosomal subunit
???
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
???
free ribosomes
scattered throughout the cytoplasm. The proteins they manufacture enter the cytosol.
fixed ribosomes
attached to the endoplasmic reticulum(ER) a membranous organelle
ribosomes
an organelle that contains rRNA and proteins and is essential to mRNA translation and protein synthesis
proteasomes
organelles that contain an assortment of protein-digesting enzymes.
endoplasmic reticulum/ER
a network of intracellular membranes connected to the nuclear envelope, which surrounds the nucleus.
cisternae
ER forms hollow tubes, flattened sheets, and chambers
smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)
no ribosomes are associated with the SER and has 4 functions all associated with the synthesis of lipids and carbs,
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) functions
synthesis of the phospholipids and cholesterol, synthesis of steroid hormones, synthesis and storage of glycerides, syn. & stor. of glycogen
rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)
functions as a combination workshop and shipping depot, many newly syn. proteins are chemically modified and packaged for export to next destination
transport vesicles
subsequently deliver their contents to the
Golgi apparatus, ??????
Golgi apparatus
a transport vesicle carries a newly synth. protein or glycoprotein that is destined for export from cell, travels from ER to an organelle (stack of dinner plates)
Secretory vesicles
contain secretions that will be discharged from the cell
peroxisomes
a membranous vesicle containing enzymes that break down hypdrogne peroxie (H2O2)
Membrane flow
the movement of sections of membrane surface to and from the cell surface and components of the ER, Golgi apparatus, and vesicles
mitochondria
an intracellular organelle responsible for generating most of the ATP required for cellular operations (responsible for energy production)
cristae
inner membrane of the mitochondria contains numerous folds
matrix
the extracellular fibers and ground substance of a connective tissue
Glycolysis
the anaerobic cytoplasmic breakdown of glucose into lactic acid by way of pruvic acid, with a net gain of two ATP molecules
tricarboxylic acid cycle/TCA cycle
the aerobic reaction sequence that occurs in the matrix of mitochondria ?????pg g-20
aerobic metabolism
the complete breakdown of organic substrates into carbon dioxide and water,via pyruvic acid, a process that yields large amts. of ATP ....
nucleus
a cellular organelle that contains DNA, RNA, and proteins, in the central nervous system, a mass of gray matter.
lysosomes
an intracellular vesicle containing digestive enzymes
autolysis
the destruction of a cell due to the rupture of lysosomal membranes in its cytoplasm
nuclear envelope
surrounding the nucleus and separating it from the cytosol
perinuclear space
a double layer membrane with its two layers separated by a narrow space ???
nuclear pores
chemical communication between the nucleus and the cytosol occurs
nuclear matrix
a network of fime filaments that provides structural support and may be involved in the regulation of genetic activity.
nucleoli
transient nuclear organelles that synthesize ribosomal RNA
histones
nucleoli composed of RNA, enzymes, and proteins
nucleosome
the DNA strands wind around the histones, forming a complex
chromatin
cells that are not dividing, the nucleosomes are loodely coiled within the nucleus, forming a tangle of fine filaments
chromosomes
before cell division begins, the coiling becomes tighter, forming distinct structures
Genetic code
chemical language, the cell uses
gene
the functional unit of heredity: it contains all the DNA triplets needed to produce specific proteins
gene activation
Before a gene can affect a cell, the portion of the DNA molecule containing that gene must be uncoiled and the histones temporarily removed????
RNA polymerase
an enzyme, binds to the promoter of the gene
transcription
the production of RNA from a DNA template. It means "to copy" or "rewrite"
Messenger RNA
carries the information needed to synthesize proteins. Is absolutely vital, because DNA cannot leave the nucleus.
coding strand
strand containing the triplets that specify the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide
template strand
the other strand, contains complementary triplets that will be used as a template for mRNA production
RNA processing
immature mRNA must be "edited" before it leaves the nucleus to direct protein synthesis
introns
nonsense regions that are snipped out
exons
coding segments that are spliced together
protein synthesis
the assembling of functional polypeptides in the cytoplasm
translation
the formation of a linear chain of amino acids, using the information provided by an mRNA strand. this crap don't make sense!!!
transfer RNA (tRNA)
a relatively small and mobile type of RNA