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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Skin
physiologic change
decreased vascularity of dermis
result
increased pallor in white skin
SKIN
decreased amount of melanin
decreased hair color (graying)
skin
decreased sebaccous & sweat gland function
increased dry skin, decreased perspiration
decreased subcutaneous fat
increased wrinkling
decreased thickness of epidermis
increased susceptibility to trauma
increased localized pigmentation
increased incidence of brown spots (senile lentigo)
increased capillary fragility
increased purple patches
(senile purpura)
decreased density of hair growth
decreased amount of thickness of hair on head & body
decreased rate of nail growth
increased longitudinal ridges of nails; increased thickening and yellowing of nails
decreased peripheral cirulation
increased facial hair in women
musculoskeletal
decreased bone calcium
increased osteoporosis; increased curvature of the spine
decreased fluid in intervertebral disks
decreased height
decreased blood supply to muscles
decreased muscle strength
decreased tissue elasticity
decreased mobility & flexibility of ligaments & tendons
decreased muscle mass
decreased strength; increased risk for falls
respiratory
decreased body fluids
decreased ability to humidify air resulting in drier mucous membranes
decreased number of cilla
decreased ability to trap debris
decreased number of macrophages
increased risk for respiratory infection
decreased tissue elasticity in the alveoli and lower lung lobes
decreased gas exchange ; increased pooling of secretions
decreased muscle strength & endurance
decreased ability to breath deeply; diminished strength of cough
decreased number of capillaries
decreased gas exchange
increased calification of cartilage
increased rigidity of rib cage; decreased lung capacity
cardiac
decreased cardiac muscle tone
decreased tissue oxygenation r/t decreased cardiac output and reserve
increased heart size, left ventricular enlargement
compensation for decreased muscle tone
decreased cardiac output
increased chance of heart failure; decreased peripheral circulation
decreased elasticity of heart muscle and blood vessels
decreased venous return; increased dependent edema; increased incidence of orthostatic hypotension
decreased pacemaker cells
Heart rate 40-100 bpm ; increased premature beats; conduction abnormalties.
decreased baroreceptor sensitivity
decreased adaptation to changes in blood pressure
increased incidence of valvular sclerosis
increased risk for heart murmurs
increased atherosclerosis
increased blood pressure, weaker peripheral pulses.
Lymphatic
increased plasma viscosity
increased risk for vascular occlusion
decreased RBC production
increased incidence of anemia
decreased mobilization of neutrophils
less effective phagocytosis
increased immature T cells response
decreased immune response
Urinary
decreased number of
functional nephrons
decreased filtration rate with decrease in drug clearance
decreased blood supply
decreased removal of body wastes; increased concentration of urine
decreased muscle tone
increased volume of residual urine
decreased tissue elasticity
decreased bladder capacity
delayed or decreased perception of need to void
increased incidence of incontinence
increased nocturnal urine production
increased need to awaken to void or episodes of nocturnal incontinence
increased size of prostate (male)
increased risk for infection; decreased stream of urine ; increased hesitancy and frequency of urination
Neurologic
decreased number of brain cells
slowed thought process, decreased ability respond to multiple stimuli and tasks
decreased number of nerve fibers
decreased reflexes, cooridination
decreased amounts of neuroreceptors
decreased perception of stimuli
decreased peripheral nerve function
decreased motor responses, increased risk for ischemic parathesia in extremities
Vision changes
decreased number of eyelashes
increased risk for eye injury
decreased tear production
increased risk for eye irritation
increased discoloration of lens
decreased color perception
decreased tissue elasticity
increased blurring
Urinary
decreased number of
functional nephrons
decreased filtration rate with decrease in drug clearance
decreased blood supply
decreased removal of body wastes; increased concentration of urine
decreased muscle tone
increased volume of residual urine
decreased tissue elasticity
decreased bladder capacity
delayed or decreased perception of need to void
increased incidence of incontinence
increased nocturnal urine production
increased need to awaken to void or episodes of nocturnal incontinence
increased size of prostate (male)
increased risk for infection; decreased stream of urine ; increased hesitancy and frequency of urination
Neurologic
decreased number of brain cells
slowed thought process, decreased ability respond to multiple stimuli and tasks
decreased number of nerve fibers
decreased reflexes, cooridination
decreased amounts of neuroreceptors
decreased perception of stimuli
decreased peripheral nerve function
decreased motor responses, increased risk for ischemic parathesia in extremities
Vision changes
decreased number of eyelashes
increased risk for eye injury
decreased tear production
increased risk for eye irritation
increased discoloration of lens
decreased color perception
decreased tissue elasticity
increased blurring
decreased muscle tone
decreased diameter of pupil, decreased night vision increased sensitivity to glare.
Auditory
decreased elastic tissue
decreased ability to distinguish high-frequency sounds
decreased joint mobility
decreased hearing ability
atrophy of vestibular structures and in the inner ear
increased problems with balance , decreased number of hair cells
decreased pituitary secretions
(growth hormone)
decrease muscle mass
decreased production of thyroid stimulating hormone
decreased metabolic rate
decreased insulin production or increased insulin resistance
increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus
decreased production of parathyroid hormone
increased blood calcium levels (seen with osteoporosis)
Reproduction
decreased estrogen levels
decreased vaginal secretions
decreased elastic tissue
decreased pubic hair, increased fragile vaginal tissue, increased tissue irritation
increased vaginal alkalinity
increased risk for infection
decreased testosterone levels
decreased amount of facial and pubic hair
decreased circulation
decreased rate & force of ejaculation, decreased speed gaining an erection