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83 Cards in this Set

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Cardiorespiratory Endurance
The ability of the body to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate-to-high levels of intensity.
The Cardiorespitory System
Picks up and transports oxygen, nutrients, and other key substances to the organs and tissues that need them; it also picks up waste products and carries themto where they can be used or expelled.
The Cardiorespitory System
Consists of the heart, the blood vessels, and the respiratory system.
The Heart
Weighs about 11 Ounces
The Heart
Is beneath the ribs under the sternum (breastbone)
The Hearts Role
To pump oxygen-poor blood to the lungs and oxygenated (oxygen-rich) blood to the rest of the body.
The Hearts Parts
The right side of the heart pumps blood to the lungs in what is called PULMONARY CIRCULATION
The Hearts Parts
The left side pumps blood through the rest of the body in SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION.
The right upper chamber of the heart.
Venae Cavae
The largest veins in the body.
Right lower chamber of the heart. When it contracts, pumps blood through the pulmonary artery into the lungs.
The Cardiorespiratory System
Waste-carrying, oxygen-poor blood enters the Atrium, of the heart through the Venae Cavae. As the right atrium fills, it contracts and pumps blood into the Ventricle.
The body's largest artery, to be fed into the rest of the body's blood vessels.
The heart's contraction.
The period of relaxation.
Blood Pressure
The force exerted by blood on the walls of the blood vessels, is created by the pumping action of the heart.
Is blood pressure greater during Systole or Diastole?
The split-second sequence of contractions of the heart's four chambers - is controlled by nerve impulses.
Blood Vessels
Are classified by size and function.
Carry blood to the heart. They have thin walls.
Carry blood away from the heart. They have thick elastic walls that enable them to expand and relax with the volume of blood being pumped through them.
Tiny vessels onlly one cell thick. They diliver oxygen and nutrient-rich blood to the tissues and pass on oxygen-poor, waste-carrying blood.
Leading cause of heart attacks
Blockage of a coronary artery.
The Respiratory System
The lungs, air passages, and breathing muscles; supplies oxygen to the body and carries off carbon dioxide.
Lungs Expansion
They expand and contract about 12-20 times a minute.
Tiny, thin-walled air sacs in the lungs through whose walls gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse in and out of the blood.
The Cardiorespiratory System at Rest and During Exercise
At Rest and during light activity, the cardiorespiratory system functions at a fairly steady pace- heart beats about 50-90 BPM; and you take about 12-20 breaths per min.
Typical resting blood pressure in a healthy adult
110 systolic and 70 diastolic.
Blood pressure is higher when...
The heart contracts (systole) than when the heart relaxes (diastole).
Cardiac Output
The amount of blood pumped by the heart each minute; a function of heart rate and stroke volume(the amount of blood pumped during each beat).
The sum of all the chemical processes necessary to maintiain the body.
Is required to fuel vital body functions - to build and break down tissue, contract muscles, conduct nerve impulses, regulate body temperature, and so on.
The rate at which your body uses energy - its metabolic rate - depends on
Your level of activity.
3 classes of energy-containing nutrients in food are...
Carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
A simple sugar that circulates in the blood and can be used by cells to fuel adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production.
A complex carbohydrate stored principally in the liver and skeletal muscles; the major fuel source during most forms of intense exercise. It is the storage form of glucose; and is stored in the liver, muscles, and kidneys.
In the diet is primarily to build new tissue, but it can be broken down for energy or incorporated into fat stores.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Energy source for cellular processes.
About ATP
When a cell needs energy, it breaks down ATP, a process that releases energy in the only form the cell can use directly.
The Muscles in your body use 3 energy systems to create ATP and fuel cellular activity
Immediate, Nonoxidative, and Oxidative.
Immediate ("Explosive") Energy System
Provides energy rapidly but for only a short period of time. It is used to fuel activities that last for about 10 or fewer seconds.
Nonoxidative (Anaerobic) Energy System
Is used at the start of an exercise session and for high-intensity activities lasting for about 10 seconds to 2 mins - such as the 400-meter run.
Ocurring in the absence of oxygen.
2 Key limiting factors
1.) The body's supply of glucose and glycogen is limited. 2.) The nonoxidative system results in the production of lactiv acid.
Lactic Acid
A metabolic acid resulting from the metabolism of glucose and glycogen; an important source of fuel for many tissues of the body, its accumulation may produce fatigue.
Oxidative (Aerobic) Energy System
Used during any physical activity that lasts longer than about 2 mins, such as distance running,swimming, and hiking.
Dependent on the presence of oxygen.
Oxidative (Aerobic) Energy System Facts
It cannot produce energy as quickly as the other two systems, but it can supply energy for much longer periods of time.
Intracellular structures containing enzymes used int he chemical reactions that convert the energy in food to a form the body can use.
Maximal Oxygen Consumption
The highest rate of oxygen consumption an individual is capable of during maximum physical effort, reflecting the body's ability to transport and use oxygen; measured in mililiters used per minute per kilogram of body weight.
The principal cardiorespiratory responses to exercise
*Increased cardiac output and blood pressure. *Increased ventilation.*Increased blood flow to active skeletal muscles and to the heart.*Increased blood flow to the skin and increased sweating. *Deacreased blood flow to the stomach, intestines, liver, and kidneys.
Free Radicals
Highly reactive compounds that can damage cells by taking electrons from key cellular components such as DNA or the cell membrane; produced by normal metabolic processes and through exposure to environmental factors, including sunlight.
Cardiovascular Disease
Disease of the heart and blood vessels. Plauq, cholesteral, fat, calcium and fiber also cause this.
6 major controllable risk factors for Cardiovascular Disease
Sedentary lifestyle, smoking, unhealthy cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity.
Heart Attack
If one of the coranary arteries, which supply oxygenated blood to the heart, becomes blocked.
Blockage of a cerebrial artery.
Substances in blood, classified according to size, density, and chemical composition, that transport fats.
Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)
Heart disease caused by the buildup of fatty deposits on the arteries that supply oxygen to the heart; also called coronary artery disease.
Type 2 Diabetes
Most common form of diabetes.
A disease that results in loss of bone density and poor bone strength.
Immune system can be strengthened by:
Regular moderate exercise, eating a well balanced diet, managing stress, and getting 7-8 hours of sleep every night.
Substances resembling morphine that are secreted by the brain and that decrease pain, suppress fatigue, and produce euphoria.
Brain chemicals that transmit nerve impulses.
Target Heart Rate Zone
Rates at which you should exercise to experiience cardiorepiratory benefits.
Heart rate reserve
The difference between maximum heart rate and resting heart rate; used in one method for calculating target heart rate range.
Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)
A system of monitoring exercise intensity based on assigning a number to the subjective perception of target intensity.
Synovial Fluid
Fluid produced within many joints that providees lubrication and nutrients for the joints.
Excessive loss of body fluid.
Heat Cramps
Sudden development of muscle spasms and pain associated with intense exercise in hot weather.
Heat Exhaustion
Heat illness related to dehydration resulting from exertion in hot weather.
Heat Stroke
A severe and often fatal heat illness produced by exposure to very high temperatures, especially when combined with intense exercise; characterized by significantly elevated core body temperature.
Low body temperature due to exposure to cold conditions.
Freezing of body tissues characterized by pallor, numbness, and a loss of cold sensation.
Wind Chill
A measure of how cold it feels based on the rate of heat loss from exposed skin cause by cold and wind; the temperature that would have the same cooling effect on a person as a given combination of temperature and wind speed.
Heat Index
A measure of how hot it feels; the temperature that would have the same heating effect on a person as a given combination of temperature and relative humidity.
Muscular Strength
The amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort.
Muscular Endurance
The ability of a muscle or group of muscles to remain contracted (sustain a level of muscular force) or to contract repeatedly.
Muscle Fiber
A single muscle cell, usually classified according to strength, speed of contraction, and energy source.
Protein structures that make up muscle fibers.
An increase in the size of a muscle fiber, usually stimulated by muscular overload.
A decreae in the size of muscle cells.
An increase in the number of muscle cells.
Slow-twitch fibers
Red muscle fibers that are fatigue-resistant but have a slow contraction speed and a lower capacity for tension; usually recruited for endurance activities.