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26 Cards in this Set

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Small, membranous sac that stores substances within a cell. (P. 37)
vesicles
Cliff's: Small, sperically shaped sacs that bud from the end of a Golgi apparatus.
Process of a tumor becoming supplied with blood vessels. (p. 44)
vascularization
Book: To support their growth, cancer cells release a growth factor that causes neighboring blood vessels to branch into the cancer tissue. This phenomenon has been termed vascularization, and some modes of treatment are aimed at preventing vascularization.
Tabors: [L. vasculum, a small vessel] The development of new blood vessels in a structure.
Gene that suppresses the development of a tumor; the mutated from contributes to the development of cancer. (p. 45)
Tumor-suppressor genes
Book: genes that ordinarily prevent a cell from dividing and growing abnormally. The hope is that, one day, oncogenes (a gene that causes a cell to begin to divide and grow abnormally) can be turned off and tumor-suppressor genes can be turned on by substituting a defective or missing gene in the cells of a person with cancer.
Tabors: A gene that suppresses the growth of malignant cells. When this regulatory system is in adequate or fails, cancer may develop.
Abnormal growth of tissue that serves no useful purpose. (p. 44)
tumor
Tabors: 1. a swelling or enlargement;one of the four classic signs of inflammation 2. An abnormal mass. Growth or proliferation that is independent of neighboring tissues in a hallmark of all tumors, benigh and malignant.
Molecule of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries an amino acid to a ribosome engaged in the process of protein synthesis. (p. 36)
transfer RNA (tRNA)
Book: transfer RNA (tRNA) is made in the nucleus and functions in protein synthesis. Transfer RNA (tRNA) transfers the amino acids to the ribosome;there is a separate tRNA for each of the different types of amino acids found in polypeptide.
Lethal genetic disease in which the newborn has a faulty lysosomal digestive enzyme. (p. 38)
Tay Sachs
Book: Tay Sachs is a genetic disease in which a newborn has a faulty lysosomal digestive enzyme. The cells fill with non-functioning lysosomes, and the death of the child follows.
Tabors: The most severe(and most common) of the lipid storage diseases.
Deepest layer of the epidermis, where cell division occurs.
epidermis-organism's outer layer of cells
stratum basale (p. 63)
Cliff's epidermis-the top layer of skin
A&P 1-83: The deepest epidermal layer, where mitoticactivity occurs.
Book: The basal cells of the "stratum basale" lie just superior to the dermis and are constantly dividing and producing new cells that rise to the surface of the epidermis in two to four weeks. As the cells push away from the dermis, they move progressively farthur away from the blood vessels in the dermis. Since these cells are not being supplied with nutrients and oxygen (the eipdermis itself lacks blood vessels), they eventually die and are sloughed off.
Cliff's: dermis-the second layer of skin
Tabors: basal-Pertaining to the base 2. Of primary importance.
Apparatus composed of microtubules to which the chromosomes are attached during cell division. (p. 43)
spindle
Book: Mitosis (fig. 3.11) actually requires several stages, during which the nuclear envelope disappears and a spindle apparatus with spindle fibers forms. The chromosomes are attached to the spindle fibers by structures called centromeres. Once the chromosomes have moved to the center of the mother cell, the centromeres split, and the daughter chromosomes move toward the poles. Daughter nuclei form, and the cytoplasm divides by furrowing. Mitosis is the type of cell division required for growth & tissue repair. The process of mitosis assures that each cell in the body has the same number and kinds of chromosomes and, therefore, the same genes (since the genes are on the chromosomes.) Mitosis ensures that each cell in the body is genetically identical.
What are the three types of RNA made in the nucleus?
1. (rRNA) Ribosomal RNA
2. (mRNA) messenger RNA
3. (tRNA) Transfer RNA
A small space or cavity within the cytoplasm of a cell.
vacuole
Sperm production in males by the process of meiosis and maturation. (p. 44,339)
spermatogenesis
Book: sperm production in the testes.
A&P 1-83: The production of male sex gametes, or spermatozoa.
gamete-A haploid sex cell;either an egg cell or a sperm cell.
haploid-A cell that has one of each chromosome type and therefore half the number of chromosomes present in most other body cells;only the gametes (sperm and ova) are haploid.
Cliffs: the development of a spermatid into mature sperm cells.
Tabors: spermatid-a cell arising by division of the secondary spermatocyte to become a spermatozoon.
spermatozoa-pl of spermatozoon-->mature male sex cell
Minute particle, found attached to the endoplasmic reticulum or loose in the cytoplasm, that is the site of protein synthesis. (p. 36)
ribosomes
A&P 1-83: ribosome-a cytoplasmic organelle composed of protein and RNA in which protein synthesis occurs.
Book: Ribosomes occur within the cytoplasm but are often attached to endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Protein synthesis occurs at the ribosomes, and all three types of RNA play a role. Synthesis refers to the bonding of small organic molecules to make a larger one. In this case, amino acids are joined to make a polypeptide, a part of a protein. One polypeptide differs from another by the sequence of its amino acids. Ribosomes are structures that contain rRNA (ribosomal RNA).
cytoplasm-ground substance of cells that is located between the nucleus and the plasma membrane.
RNA (ribonucleic acid) occurring in ribosomes, structures involved in protein synthesis. (p. 36)
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
Book: Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) plays a structural role in protein synthesis in that ribosomes are structures that contain rRNA.
Table 3.1 Organelles Simplified
Name Function
ribosome protein synthesis
ribosome-a cytoplasmic organelle composed of protein and RNA in which protein synthesis occurs.
Ribosomes have 2 subunits-each contains proteins and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), one of the three types of RNA made in the nucleus.
Ribosomes occur within the cytoplasm but are often attached to endoplasmic reticulum (ER).
cytoplasm-ground substance of cells that is located between the nucleus and the plasma membrane.
A general term for the colloidal complex of protein that constitutes the living material of a cell. It includes cytoplasm and nucleoplasm.
protoplasm
Membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of cells and regulates the passage of molecules into and out of the cell. (p. 34)
Plasm membrane
Formation of a vesicle that brings molecules into a cell;also called cell drinking. (p. 42)
pinocytosis
endocytosis (phagocytosis (cell eating) & pinocytosis (cell drinking)
Book: when cells take in material that is small enough to be dissolved or suspended in water, the process is called pinocytosis (cell drinking).
Fig 3.9 Transport by vesicles. During endocytosis (either phagocytosis or pinocytosis), the plasma membrane forms a vesicle around the substance to be taken in.
Taking in of bcteria and (or debris by engulfing;also called cell eating. (p. 42,211)
phagocytosis
Book:At times, substances are taken into cells by vesicle formation. This is called endocytosis. (fig. 3.9) When the material taken in is quite large, the process is called phagocytosis (cell eating). Phagocytosis is common to amoebid-type cells, such as macrophages. These white blood cells are called the body's scavengers because they engulf worn-out red blood cells and other types of debris. When cells take in material that is small enough to be dissolved or suspended in water, the process is called pinocytosis. (cell drinking)
macrophage-a wandering phagocytic cell.
endocytosis-a general term for the cellular uptake of particles that are too large to cross the cell membrane. See also phagocytosis (cell eating) and pinocytosis (cell drinking).
A&P 1-83: phagocytosis-cellular eating;the ability of some cells (such as white blood cells) to engulf large particles (such as bacteria) and digest these particles by merging the food vacuole in which they are contained with a lysosome containing digestive enzymes.
Pinocytosis-cell drinking;invagination of the cell membrane forming narrow channels that pinch off into vacuoles. This allows for cellular intake of extracellular fluid and dissolved molecules.
vacuole-a small space or cavity within the cytoplasm of a cell.
fig 3.9 Ttransport by vesicles. During endocytosis (either phagocytosis or pinocytosis), the plasma membrane forms a vesicle around the substance to be taken in.
Membranous vesicle(sacs) containing enzymes that catalyze reactions producing and decomposing hydrogen peroxide. (p. 37)
peroxisomes
Book: membranous sacs that contain enzymes. Hydrogen peroxide, a normal product of metabolism, is harmful if allowed to accumulate. Peroxisomal enzymes break down hydrogen peroxide to water and molecular oxygen. In the liver and kidney, peroxisomes detoxify harmful substances, such as formaldehyde and alcohol. Peroxisomes are believed to bud directly from the smooth ER.
Movement of water from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration across the plasma membrane. (p. 41)
osmosis
A&P 1-83: The passage of solvent (water) from a more dilute to a more concentrated solution through a membrane that is more permeable to water than to the solute.
Book: Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a plasma membrane. It occurs whenever the concentrations of water on either side of a selectively permeable membrane are unequal.
Part of a cell that performs a specialized function. (p. 36)
organelles
Cliffs: bodies within the cytoplasm (inside of the cell)that serve to physically separate the various metobolic reactions that occur within cells.
cytoplasm-specialized bodies within a cell called organelles suspended in a fluid matrix, the cytosol.
cytosol-a fluid matrix of water and dissolved substances such as proteins and nutrients.
A&P 1-83: cytoplasm-in a cell, the protoplasm located outside of the nucleus.
matrix-the intercellular substance of a tissue
protoplasm-a general term for the colloidal complex of protein that constitutes the living material of a cell. It includes cytoplasm and nucleoplasm.
Tabors:colloidal-a gluelike substance, such as protein or starch, whose particles (molecules or aggregates of molecules), when dispersed as much as possible in a solvent, remain uniformly distributed and do not form a true solution.
nucleoplasm-the protoplasmic contents of the nucleus of a cell
Tabors: proto- 1. Combining form meaning first. 2. Prefix indicating the lowest of a series of compounds having the same elements.
Production of eggs in femailes by the process of meiosis and maturation. (p. 44,343)
oogenesis
Cliffs:oogenesis consist of the meiotic cell divisions that lead to the production of ova(eggs) in females.
A&P 1-83: oogenesis The process of female gamete formation.
gamete: A haploid sex cell;either an egg cell(ova) or a sperm cell(sperm).
haploid: A cell that has one of each chromosome type and therefore half the number of chromosomes present in most other body cells;only the gametes (sperm and ova) are haploid.
A haploid sex cell;either an egg cell(ova) or a sperm cell(sperm).
gamete
A cell that has one of each chromosome type and therefore half the number of chromosomes present in most other body cells;only the gametes (sperm and ova) are haploid.
haploid
Gene that contributes to the transformation of a mormal cell into a cancer cell. (p.45)
oncogene
Two types of genes are now implicated in causing cancer. Book: An oncogene is a gene that causes a cell to begin to divide and grow abnormally. Tumor-suppressor genes are genes that ordinarily prevent a cell from dividing and growing abnormally. The hope is that one day, oncogenes can be turned off and tumor-supressor genes can be turned on by substituting a defective or missing gene in the cells of a person with cancer.
Large organelle that contains the chromosomes and acts as a cell control center. (p.35)
nucleus
A&P 1-83 nucleus: A spheroid body withing a cell that contains the genetic factors of the cell.
Book: nucleus: Control center of a cell. The nucleus is enclosed by a nuclear envelope that is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulim (ER), another part of the cell (fig. 3.2). Pores, or openings, in this nuclear envelope allow the passage of large molecules from the nucleoplasm, the fluid portion of the nucleus, to the cytoplasm. The nucleus is the control center that oversees the cell's metabolic functioning and ultimately determines the cell's characteristics. Within the nucleus are masses of threads called chromatin, so named because they take up stains and become colored. Chromatin is indistinct in the non-dividing cell, but it condeses to rodlike structures called chromosomes just prior to cell division.
Organelle found inside the nucleus and composed largely of RNA for ribosome formation (pl., nucleoli). (p.36)
nucleolus
Book: The nucleolus is a spherical body found in the nucleus (see fig 3.2). Here, another type of RNA, called ribosomal RNA (rRNA), is formed and contributes to the manufacture of small granules called ribosomes. After their formation in the nucleolus, ribosomes are transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where they function in protein synthesis.
Purple Section In Book: The nucleus contains chromatin, which condenses into chromosomes just prior to cell division. Genes, composed of DNA, are on the chromosomes, and they code for the production of proteins in the cytoplasm. The nucleolus is involved in ribosome formation.
A&P 1-83: nucleolus: A dark-staining area within a cell nucleus;the site where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is produced.