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30 Cards in this Set

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what is the hospital acquired infection?
Nosocomial infection
What are the three element that must be present to spread infection?
1. Source
2. route of transmission
3. host
A process of infection where people are the source of their own infection via their endogeneous flora is called_______?
Autogenous infection
the mere presence of organinism in a host is______?
colonization
in nosocomial infections give examples of gram negative bacilli:
p aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, and E.coli
In nosocomial infection give examples of gram positive bacilli:
MRSA or staph aureus
what are the four major bugs that cause infection in hospital?
1. VRE-vancoomycin resistant enterococcus
2. MRSA- methelyne resistant staph aureus
3. ESBL- extended Spectrum Beta Lactomace
4. C. dificile
what are the five routes of transmission?
1. contact-
2. droplet
3.airborne
4. vehicle
5. vector
what are the infection control methods?
GLoves/ Gowns, Universal precautions, isolation procedure, Needle blood precautions.
The process of destroying vegetative pathogenic organism.
disinfection
disinfection and sterilization can be done in two ways ______ and ______.
physical and chemical
______ is a type of physical disinfection efficient and cost effective. but does not kill spores, may kill bacteria and some viruses. is done in batch process therefore its prone to be recontaminated during reassembly.must be submersed in water for 30 min in 70 degegrees F.
pasteurization
give examples of low level chemical disinfectants.
acetic acids and quats
give examples of Intermediate level disinfectant.
alcohol, phenolics, iodophors
Give exaples of high level disinfectants.
1.Glutaraldehyde also known as cidex.
2. hydrogen peroxide
3. sodium hypochlorite
what are the characteristics of cidex?
PH of 7.5-8.5. alkaline,
bactericidal in 10 mins
tuberculocidal in 10-20 min
sporicidal in 10 hrs
give examples of proper use and methods use of cidex
1.equipment must be rinsed, dried, and packed after soaking.
2. use for plastics, mouthpiece, tubing and aerosols. use specifically in resp equip like broncoscope.
3. can be use in metal bcoz its non corrosive.
4. must be careful specially to skin and mucuos membrance very dangerous and toxic.
last about 14 to 28 days
This is a process that can be done through physical and chemical means, and destroys all microbial life including spores
sterilization
give and examples of heat sterilization.
autoclaving, incineration,
this method of sterilization cannot be used for plastics or heat sensitive materials. it is done through 121degrees celsius for 15 min.
autoclaving
factors of this process includes temp of the chamber arnd 50 to 60 celsius, concnts must be 800-1000 mg/l, has to have 50% humidity to enhance effectiveness, exposure time has to be 1.5-6 hours. this chemical kills by damaging nucleic acids.
ETO, ethylene oxide
what are the 3 major methods of sterilization used for respiratoryy care equipment.
ETO, cidex and pasteurization
lack of any life or living organism.
sterile
a term use for growing organism.
vegetative organism
this means disease producing.
pathogen
growth is inhibited
static (ie.hydrostatic)
microoorganism are killed
cidal
what kind of equipment is ETO use for in term of resp equipment.
vents, ambu bag piece from HIV patient.
this type of disinfectant are most effective in 70-90% solutiions. non-sporicidal although it is bactericidal and fungicidal.
Alcohol disinfectant
Agents are surfactants which will reduce surface tension.
soap and detergents.