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22 Cards in this Set

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Acids & Bases
When water dissociates, it releases Hydrogen H+ & Hydroxide (OH-)ions.
Acidic solutions have a high H+ concentration.
Acid releases H+ ions when dissolved in water.
Basic Solutions have a low H+ concentration. Base releases OH- ions when dissolved in water.
pH Scale
- a mathematical way of indicating the numebr of H+ ions in a solution.
- pH scale used to express acidity or basicity (alkalinity)
- scale goes from 0 (acid) to 14 (base) with 7 as neutral.
Buffer
- A buffer is a chemical or combination of chemicals that keeps a pH within a given range.
- Buffers resist change in pH by taking up extra H+ or OH- from solution.
Organic Moloecules
- Organic molecules contain carbon & hydrogen
Carbon Sketon & Functional Groups
- Carbon chain is skeleton or backbone.
- Carbon skeletons can have attached functional groups that determine reactivity of that molecule.
Functionsl Groups
Hydroxyl -OH (alcohols, sugars)

Carboxyl -COOH (amino acids, fatty acids)

Amino -NH2 (amino acids, proteins)

Sulfhydryl -SH (amino acids, cycteine, proteins)

Phosphate -P (ATP, nucleic acids)
Functional Groups Specificity
- Hydrocarbons containing Carbon & Hydrogen (hydrophobic)
- Sugars & alcohols contain polar hydroxyl(OH)(hydrophyllic)
- Carboxyls (COOH)both polar & acidic
Organic Molecules of Cells - Four Categories
- Carbohydrates
- Lipids
- Proteins
- Nucleic Acids

These compounds released to form large MACROmolecules
Mascromolecules
- Contructed by linking toegether similar subunits, MONOmers
- Repeating chain of monomers called POLYmer.
- Macromolecules synthesized by DEhydration synthesis
-Macromolecules are degraded by Hydrolysis
Carbohydrates
- single sugar or two sugar molecules bonded together
(mono- or di- saccharide)
- Glucose (monosaccharide)
- Monsaccacharide is ready energy
- Disaccharide many uses (maltose, sucrose): fermentation, table sugar, energy storage
-Polysaccharide energy storage (starch & glycogen); structural (cellulose (plant wall), chitin (crabs, lobster exoskelton))
Lipids
- Diverse group, Insolubale in water
- Fats & oils
- Phospholipid compnents of membranes that surround cells
- Steriods used as hormones & other purposes
- FATS & OILS (energy storage)
Lipids - Fats & Oils
- FATS & OILS contains two subunits, glycerol & fatty acids
Lipids - Fatty Acids
- since 3 fatty acids attached to one glycerol, fats & oils called TRIglcerides
- Fatty acids have 16-28 carbon atoms
- Saturated Fatty Acids have NO double bonds
- Unsaturated Fatty Acids have at least one double bond
Lipids - Phospholipids (cell membranes)
- contain glycerol + 2 fatty acids + hydroxyl (OH)
- hydrophobic tail & hydrophillic head
Lipids - Steriods
- have 4 fused hydrocarbon rings
- hormones, cholesterol, anabolics
Proteins
- structural (keratin, collagen)
- enzymatic
- transport (hemoglobin)
- defense (antibodies)
- regulatory (insulin)
- contractile (actin & myosin in cells & muscles)
Proteins - Amino Acids
- subunits of proteins
- -NH2 + -COOH = amino acid
- two or more aminoacids linked together, Peptide
- chain of amino acids called polypeptide
Proteins - Shape
- primary structure is sequence of amino acids
- secondary struture form ofhelix or a pleated sheet
- tertiary structure formed with secondary folded & twisted (rounded, 3D shape)
- proteins with more that one polypeptide have a quadinary structure (globular)
- denaturing is protein losing form
Nucleic Acids
- DNA (genetic info)& RNA (reads DNA)
- polymers of nucleotides
- 2 parts: phosphate group (-PO4), 5 carbomn, nitrogen base
Nucleic Acids versus Amino Acids
- Amino = bldg blocks of proteins
- Nucleotides = bldg blocks of amino acids
Nucleic Acids (DNA & RNA)
Deoxyribose in DNA
Ribose in RNA
- Bases in DNA: thymine, adenine, cytosine, guanine
- Bases in RNA: uracil,adenine, cytosine, guanine
- complemetary pair of DNA pass info to RNA
- info in DNA in triplet code
- ifor in DNA coded in genes (Human Genome Project)
Proteins & Nucleic Acids
- order of amino acids determine shape & function of protein
- DNA contains instrucitons for sequence of amino acids in eahc protein.