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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is culture?
-The totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior.
-includes the ideas, values, customs, and artifacts of groups of people
what is cultural universals?
-all societies have developed certain common practices and beliefs
-cultural universals change over time and from one society to another
---example: Murdoch (1945)
what is innovation?
-process of introducing a new idea or object to culture
-innovation may take the form of either discovery or invention
what is globilization?
consists of cultural expressions and practices that cross national borders and have an effect on the traditions and customs of the societies exposed to them
--rapidly escalating throughout the world today.
what is diffusion
the process by which a cultural items spreads from group to group or society to society
-can occur thru a variety of means:
*exploration *Military conquest *missionary work *mass media *tourism *internet
What can technology be defined as using?
the material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires
What does technology accelerate?
the diffusion of scientific innovations, it transmits culture
Referring to the physical or technological aspects of our daily lives...
material culture
-raw materials
refers to ways of using material objects as weel as to: customs, beliefs, government, patterns of communication, philosophies is...
nonmaterial culture
What is cultural lag?
a period of maladjustment when the nonmaterial culture is still struggling to catch up with the material culture.
Elements of Culture
-an abstract system of word meanings and symbols for all aspects of culture is..
What does language include?
speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and gestures, and expressions of nonverbal communicaton.
----nonverbal comm---gestures, expressions, visual images. not the same in all cultures, it is learned.
established patterns of behavior maintained by a society.
-formal norms
-informal norms
Mores are
norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of society
Folkways are..
Norms governing everyday social behavior whose violation raises comparatively little concern.
Penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm are...
Collective conceptions of what is good, desirable, and proper---or bad, undesirable, and improper---in a culture are...
-influence ppl's behaviors
-are criteria for evaluating actions of others, judging

*pg 60 Robin Williams
*"" Table 3-1
Culture and the Dominant Ideology
Ideology describes...
the set of cultural beliefs and practices that help to maintain powerful social economic, and political interests
What does the dominant group control?q
-wealth and property
-the means of producing beliefs about reality thru:
----the media
Cultural Variation
a segment of society that shares a distintive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differ from the larger society is...
a subculture
A counter culture is created when...
a subculture conspicuously and deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger society
When one feels disoriented, uncertain, out of place, or fearful when immersed in an unfamiliar culture is...
Culture shock
The tendancy to assume that ones own culture and way of life are superior to all others---what i think about America---is
What is cultural relativism?
viewing peoples behaviors from the perspective of their own culture, putting yourself in their shoes