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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Which of the following act as a code book for synthesizing specific proteins required to perform specific body tasks?
A. RNA
B. Cells
C. Organs
D. DNA
DNA
The constant turnover of boyd tissues requires the ________ supplied by carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids.
Chemical energy
All of the following must be supplied by the diet to support the chemical processes of human physiology except
A. vitamins and minerals
B. lipids
C. carbohydrates
D. Phytocmeicals
phytochemicals
To which body part does blood travel to pick up oxygen and release carbon dioxide?
lungs
The _____________ system is made up of several glands that act in the regulation of metabolism, reproduction, water balance, and many other functions.
Endocrine
Which hormone functions in the regulation of the body's metabolic rate?
Thyroid hormone
Bone, cartilage, muscle, and nerves are considered
tissues
The ____________ system shelters humans from threats such as disease and toxins
immune
What structure prevents food from entering the trachea when you swallow?
Epiglottis
Which large blood vessel is the first to receive most recently eaten nutrients, transporting them to the liver?
Portal vein
Nutrient-rich blood leaving the intestine goes by way of a vein to the
liver
After digestion and absorption, which circulatory system carries and fat-soluble vitamins?
Lymphatic
Where does digestion begin?
mouth
Most digestion takes place in the
small intestine
The stomach empties into the small intestine through the
pyloric sphincter
What is one function of the pyloric sphincter?
Prevents intestinal contents from backing up into the stomach
Which of the following is a description of chyme?
A watery mixture of partially digested food release by the stomach in the intestines
What is the function of mucus in the stomach?
Protects stomach cells from gastric juices
What substance helps suspend fat in a watery digestive mixture, making fat more available to digestive enzymes?
Bile
Where are most digestive enzymes produced?
Pancreas and small intestine
Which of the following, upon digestion, is NOT normally absorbed directly into the bloodstream?
Fats
Which of the following organs serves as a storage depot for many vitamins and minerals
Liver
Which of the following body organs produces bile?
Liver
Peristalsis refers to
muscular movement of materials through the GI tract
Which of the following is NOT a short-term storage site for carbohydrates in the body?
brain
Which of the following is NOT considered part of the GI tract?
Lungs
The study of how genes determine our nutritional requirements is called
Nutrigenomics
What % of a meal has been absorbed by the time it leaves the small intestine?
95%
These protein-based substances enhance digestion by making chemical reactions more likely to happen.
Enzymes
The villi of the small intestine
provide an enormous surface area that facilitates absorption