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64 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
molecules with carbon skeleton and covalent carbon hydrogen bonds
organic molecules
building units that can be joined together to make larger molecules
monomers
2 monomers
dimer
many monomers
polymers
nonpolar substances, do not dissolve in water, inculde waxes, fats, oils, steroids
lipids
sugars, startches, cellulose, and related compouds
carbohydrates
genetic material (containing instructions for making proteins) and molecules that help assemble proteins
nucleic acids
molecules that make up silk, hair, tendons, and cartilage; carry out cell movements and muscle contraction; act as hormones; transport substances in the blood
proteins
clusters of atoms that give a molecule specific chemical properties
functional groups
5 carbons attached only to hydrogen atoms; nonpolar; not easily dissolved
hydrocarbon chain
found in various organic molecules; nonpolar; lowers water solubility
methyl
found in fatty acids, amino acids; organic acids; polar; acidic, releasing hydrogen in solution
carboxyl
found in alcohols, sugars; polar, forms hydrogen bonds
hydroxyl
found in linkage of alcohol to organic acid; polar
ester linkage
carbon double bonded to an oxygen atom
carbonyl
carbonyl attached to a hydrogen, occurs on an end carbon
aldehyde
2 molecules join as one loses an -H and the other an -OH, which themselves join together and form a water molecule
condensation (dehydration synthesis)
monomer that has lost an atom or two by combining with another molecule
residue
breaking apart of a molecule into its monomer subunits by addition of the components of a water molecule into each of the covalent bonds linking them
hydrolysis
consists of a long hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group at one end
fatty acid
all carbon atoms of the hydrocarbon chain are "filled" with as many hydrogens as they can hold
saturated fatty acid
fatty acid with one or more double bonds in its hydrocarbon chain; could hold more hydrogens if one of two bonds were broken and two hydrogen atmos attached to carbons
unsaturated fatty acid
bonds in a carboxyl group are polar; end of fatty acid
hydrophilic
carbon hydrogen bonds in hydrocarbon chain are nonpolar
hydrophobic
lipid formed by joining two monomers: one very long fatty acid, one very long fatty alcohol, composed of hydrocargon chain, C-OH at one end
wax
molecule made by joining 3 fatty acids to the 3 alcohol groups of glyceral; forms ster linkages
triglycerides
triglycerides solid at room temperature
fats
liquid triglycerides
oils
like triglycerides, except one (or 2) of fatty acids replaced by a phosphate group, usually then linked to a nitrogen containing group
phospholipids
insoluble in water, lipid containing 4 contiguous carbon rings (ex: cholesterol, estrogen, testosterone)
steroids
chemical messengers between different parts of body
hormones
simple sugars with formula given by CH2O (glucose, robose)
monosaccharides
molecule made up of 2 simple sugar residues
disaccharides
a macromolecule made up of many subunits that are simple sugars
polysaccharides
a storage polysaccharide made from glucose monomers, commonly found in animals
glycogen
polysaccharide forming the fibers that make up a large part of the cell wall in plants
cellulose
structural polysaccharide composed of amino sugar monomers
chitin
genetic material of organisms of many viruses
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
participates in making proteins; some viruses genetic material
RNA ribonucleic acid
a derivative of the double ring base
purine
subunits of nucleic acids; consists of a single or double ring nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar and one to three phosphate groups
nucleotides
single-ring base
pyrimidine
sugar in RNA nucleotides
ribose
ribose strippod of one oxygen atom, in DNA nucleotides
deoxyribose
supply the energy for many chemical reactions
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
monomers of proteins
amino acides
covalent bond that joins two amino acids
peptide bond
linking of 2 amino acids
dipeptides
long unbranched stings of amino acids; most contain 150-170 amino acid residues
polypeptides
a protein's unique sequence of amino acids, dictated by inherited genetic information
primary structure
regions that form regular twists or pleats; result from regular patterns of hydrogen bonds between amino acid residues in these regions
secondary structure
proteins characteristic overall shape; influenced by ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and hydrophobic interactions between R groups in different parts of chain
tertiary structure
structure in which the chains fit together to form a complete, functional protein
quaternary structure
polypeptides who generally lose their shape permanetly
denatured
proteins that act as catylsts
enzymes
substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction, takes part in reaction without being permanently changed
catalyst
reactant in an enzyme-mediated chemical reaction
substrates
small groove where protein folds up, where substrate binds
active site
attached to protein by covalent bond effectively part of enzyme
prosthetice group
substances held to protein by other kinds of bonds
cofactors
nonprotein organic molecules, cofactor
coenzyme
compounds so similar in structure to an enzyme's substrate that they compete with substrate molecules for the enzymes active site
competitive inhibitors
bind to enzymes at sites other than the active site
noncompetitive inhibitors
organization of organism's biochemical reaction; each having several enzymes mediated steps such that the products released by one enzyme are the substrates of the next enzyme
metabolic pathways