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150 Cards in this Set

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Define: Protist
informal word to refer to eukaryotes that are not plants, animals or fungi
3 types of nutritional consumption:
1) photoautotrophes-contains chloroplast

2) heterotrophs-absorbing orgainic molecules and indigest food particles

3) mixotrophes- combines photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition.
Name 3 different roles in biological communities.
1) photosynthetic (plant-like) protozons

2) ingestive (animal-like) protozoans

3) absorptive (fungi-like) protist
Protist life cycles of protist vary greatly.

Some are exclusively ___, while most have life cycle including ___ and ___.
asexual, meiosis, syngamy
Define: endosymbiosis
a process in which unicellular organisms engulfed other cells that envolved organelles in the host cell.
define: endosymbiont
a photosynthethetic cyanobacterium that were engulfed and evolved into plasmids.
define: secondary endosymbiosis
were ingested in the food vacuole of a heterotrophic eukaryote and became endosymbionts.
most diplomonads and parabasalids are found in what enviornment?
Diplomonads and parabasalids lack ___ and thier mitochondria lack ___.
plastids, DNA
what is needed for the citric acid cycle in the Diplomonads and parabasalids?
electron transport chain, and the enzymes
In some of the species of Diplomonads and parabasalids the mitochondria are very small and produce cofactors for enzymes through what process and where?
ATP production in the cytosol.
define: diplomonds
they have 2 equal sized nuclei and multiple fagella
What is one example (in the text) of a diplomonads, what does it do and where is it found?
Giardia, a parasite that feeds in the intestines of mammals that is found in drinking water.
Name one example (in the text) of a parabasalids.
Trichomonads, its an STD that feeds and affects on the female, but could be found in the male as well.
Name 3 Euglenozoa types.
1) heterotrophs
2) photosynthetic autotrophs
3) pathogenic parasites
What feature distingues the euglenozoa?
the presence of spiral or chystalline rod inside their fagella.
what are the shapes of their citochondrial cristae?
Define: kinetoplastids
a single large mitochondrion associated with a unique organelle, the kinetoplast.
The kinetoplast houses ___.
extranuclear DNA
Kinetoplastids are ___ and include ____ ____.
symbiotic, pathogenic parasites
Name one example of a Kinetoplastid. What does it do? How is it spread?
Trypanosoma, it causes African sleeping sickness, which is transmitted through bloodsucking bugs.
How are Euglenids characterized?
by an anterior pocket from which one or two fagella emerge.
What acts as a storage molecule for the Euglenids?
glucose polymer and paramylon
Many species of euglenid Euglina are what by nature? What do they change to when in the dark. Explain that term.
autotrophic, but can turn heterotropic, which means they absorb nutrients from their enviorment.
How do Euglenids engluf their prey?
Explain the clade Alveolata.
They have alveoli, which are small membrane-bound cavities under the plasma membrane.
What does the clade Alveolata include?
protist dinoflagellates, parasites apicomplexans and ciliates.
Define: Dinoflagellates
abundant components of marine and freshwater phytoplankton.
What doe dinoflagellates do?
along with phytoplankton they form the foundation of most marine and many freshwater food chains.
What does classifies each dinoflagellate?
Its distinct shape and internal plates of cellulose.
where are the two fagella in Dinoflagellates found? How do they move?
sit in perpendicular grooves in the "armor" and produce a spinning movement.
What can dinoflagellates cause?
with explosive population growths they can cause red tides in costal waters.
Why is the booms brownish red or pinkish orange in Dinoflagellates?
because of the presence of carotenoids in dinoflagellates plasmids.
If a red tide occurs with the dinoflagellates occurs what else can result?
death of fish and invertebrates, including humans
Dinoflangellates form mutulistic symbioses coral ployps are also called ___.
animals that build coral reefs.
Why are Dioflagellates commonly found in reef communites?
the photosynthesis output is the main food for them.
Define: apicomplexans
parasites of animals, including a few that cause serious human diseases
what are sporozoites?
tiny infectious cells
Apicomplexans have a nonphotosynthetic plasmid called the apicoplast, what does it do?
It carries out vital functions including the synthesis of fatty acids.
Most apicomplexans life cycle contains ___ and ___ also it requires ___ for completion.
sexual, asexual, two or more different host species
What does Plasmodium cause?
why has their been very little success with riding of Plasmondium?
it is evasive and often adapts to the vaccines given.
Ciliates got their name because... ?
they use cilia to move and feed.
how do cilia cover objects?
they cover the cell serface or cluster into rows and tufts.
What may associate with the movement of Ciliates?
the association with a submermbrane systemof microtubules
What does Ciliates have?
2 nuclei, one or more macronuclei and tiny micronuclei
Each macronucleus of Cilates have?
doezens of copies of the ciliate's genome.
What do macronucleus in Cilates control?
everyday function such as feeding waste removal and water balance.
Ciliates reproduce with which process?
Asexually through binary fission.
What occurs in conjugation, in Ciliates, and how is it done?
sexual shuffling of genes, where two individuals exchange haploid micronuclei.
True or False?
In Ciliates, reproduction and conjugation is two different processes.
Conjugation proviedes and opportunity for what in Ciliates?
to eliminate transposons and other types of "selfish" DNA that replication within the genome.
How much of ciliates genome may be removed everytime it undergoes conjugation?
What does the clade Stramenopila include?
both heterotrophic and photosynthetic protists.
How did Stramenopila get its name?
from the presence of numerous fine, hairlike projections on the fagella.
The only flagellated stages in stramenopile groups are ___.
motile reporductive cells.
the heterotrophic stramenoplies include ___, ___, ___.
water molds, white rusts, and downy mildews.
What's another name for heterotrophic stramenoplies?
the oomycetes
Many oomycetes have multinucleate filaments that resemble ____.
fungal hyphae
Oomycetes have cell walls made of __ while fungal walls are composed of ___.
multinucleate filaments, chitin
The dominate life cycle in oomycete is the ____.
diploid condition
What helps them enhance nutrient uptake?
high surface-to-volume ratio of filamentous.
Oomycetes have ____ cells, while fungi lack ____.
fagellated, flagella
oomycets decended from ____ ancestors and no longer contain ___.
photosynthetic, plastids
How do oomycetes acquire nutrients?
they act as decomposers or parasites.
Water molds are ___ and are found in ___
decomposers, fresh water
Give an example of where you've probably seen an oomycetes?
on dead algae or animals (for example, a dead fish)
What are white rusts and downy mildews?
parasites of terrestrial plants
how are white rusts and downy mildews dispersed? Then after they are dispersed what else happens?
by winblown spores.
the form fagellated zoospores.
Name one example out of the text where downy mildews are found?
late potato blight
Define: Diatoms
unicellular algae with unique glasslike walls composed of hydrated silica embedded in an organic matrix.
Diatoms are like a shoe box because....
their walls are divided into two parts that overlap
How do the walls on diatoms help provide defense?
they help the diatoms withstand immense pressure.
How do most diatoms reproduce, explain.
asexually by mitosis, where each daughter cell receing half of the cell wall and then regenerating a new second half.
Why do some diatoms form cysts?
to act as resistant stages.
what stage is not common in diatoms?
When diatoms rarely perform the sexual stage what does it involve?
formation of eggs and amoeboid of flagellated sperm.
Where are diatoms abundant?
in freshwater and marine plankton
Diatoms store food reserves as ____ ____ ___ or ____.
glucose polymer laminarin or oil
whats another name for Golden algae?
How did Golden algae get its name?
for their yellow and brown carotenoids.
Their cells are ___ and both fagella meet near ___.
biflagellated, one end of the cell.
Where do chrysophytes live?
freshwater and marine plankton
How do cysts help Golden Algae?
they help them remain viable for decades
All brown algae are ___ and ___.
multicellular, marine
Brown Algae are compenly found ___
in areas of cool water and dequate nutrients.
Marine algae is commonly called?
the analogous features of seaweed are?
thallus (body)
The thallus in seaweed includes?
holdfast (rootlike), stipe (stemlike) and photosynthetic blades
multicellular brown,red and green algae have life cycles that have ____.
alternation of mulitcellular haploid and mulitcelluar diploid forms.
what is the diploid indivdual in the life cycle of kelp Laminaria and what does it produce?
sporophte, it produces haploid spoers (zoospores)
What is the haploid individual in the life cyle of kelp Laminaria and what does it produce?
gametophyte, produces gametes by mitosis that fuse and form diploid zygote.
In Laminaria, the sporophte and gametophtye are ___.
heteromorphic (sturctually different)
In other algae the alternating generations look __ and differ in ___.
isomorphic, chromosomes
the clade Cercozoa includes
Amoeba refers to ____.
the protist that move and feed by means of pseudopodia.
define pseudopodia
cellualr extensions that bulge from the cell surface
how is Cercozoa distinguished?
their threadlike pseudopodia
the clade Cercozoans include....
chlorarachniophytes and foraminiferans
the clade Cercozoans are closely related to ___ because ___.
radiolarians, because they have threadlike pseudopodia
Foraminifernans/ forams are named for ____.
their porous shells (tests)
what makes up the multichambered, porous shells?
organic materials that harden with calcium.
How do Foraminiferans move/interact with the enviorment?
through extended pseudopodia that come out of the pores for swimming, shell foration and feeding
Many forams form ___ with algae.
where do forams live?
in marine and fresh water in sand or attached to rocks or algae.
Forams are also abundant in __.
More that 90% of Forams are ___.
Define Radiolarians
mostly marine protists whose siliceous skeletons are fused into one delicate piece.
In Radiolarians pseudopodia are called a different name, what is it and explain where it is and what helps it?
axopodia radiate located from the center of the body and reinforced by microtubules
After the death of a radiolarians what happens?
tests accumulate as an ooze
Waht helps phagocytosis orgainisms in Radiolarians?
the think layer of cytoplasm that covers the microtubules
Those orgainisms that are in the clade Amoebozoans are characterized by their ___.
lobed-shaped pseudopodia
The clade Amoebozoans includes ___, ___, ___.
gymnamoebas, entamoebas and slime molds
Where are Gymnamoebas found?
in soil as well as freshwater and marine environmnts
Gymnamoebas are ___ meaning they seek and consume bacteria and protists
Define: Entamoebas
include free-living and parasitic speicies
Why were slime molds thought to be fungi at one time?
they produce fruiting bodies that disperse their spores.
How come slime molds resemble fungi?
it is due to evolutionary convergence
What clade is slime molds in?
Slime molds have diverged into two linages iwth distinctive life cycles ___ and ____.
plasmodial slime molds and cellular slime molds
define: plasmodial slime molds
brightly pigmented, hetrotropic orgainisms
define: plasmodium
an amoeboid mass which is in the feeding stage

2. a single mass of cytoplasm with multiple diploid nuclei
the diploid mucl in plasmodial slime molds undergo ___.
synchronous mitotic divisions
within the cytoplasm what occurs in the plasmodial slime molds?
streaming distributes nutrients an oxygen throughout the plasmodium
where does plasmodial slime molds phagocytoses food particles from?
soil, leaf mulch, rotting logs
If the habitat begins to dry out of if the food levles drop what occurs to the plasmodial slime molds?
they stop growing and differentiates into a stage of the life cycle that produces fruiting bodies
Plasmodial slime molds are primarly ____.
Define: Cellular slime molds
defines the line between individuality and mulitcellularity
what does the feeding stage consist of in a cellular slime modls?
solitary cells that fed and divide mitotically as individuals
what happens to Cellular slime molds when food is scarce?
cells form an aggregate ("slug") that functions as a unit.
what is the dominate stage in cellular slime molds?
haploid stage
what cellular slime molds lack?
flagellated stage
What is a common cellular slime mold?
Dictyostelium discoideum
What happens when fruiting bodies start to form within cellular slime molds?
cells that form the stalk dry out and die, while cells on the top survive and form spores for future generations.
how did red and green algae come from?
a descendant of a hetrotropich protist that acquired a cyanobacterial endosymbiont
red algae have no ___ stages in their life cycle
how did red algae get its color?
pigment phycoerythrin
Where do red aglae inhabitat?
deep waters
the life cycle of red algae is very diverse and depends on what?
curretns of water to bring gametes together.
what process does red algae used?
Alternation of generations
define: green Algae
for thier grass-green chloroplasts.
green algae is closely related to ___
land plants
green algae is divided into two groups?
chlorophytes and charophycenans
cholorophytes inhabit ___ while ohter live on ___.
damp soil, glaciers and snowfields
chlorophytes that live iwth symbiotically with fungi form __.
large size and complexity in chlorophytes have evolved into 3 different mechanisms... what are they?
1) formation of colonies of individual cells (ex. Volvox)

2) repeated division of nuclei without cytoplasmic division to form mulitnucleate filaments

3) formation of true multicelluar forms by cell division and cell differentiation.
some marine cholorophytes are large enough to qualify as ___.
green algae have complex life cycles that include ___ and ___.
sexual and asexual reproductive stages
Most sexual green algae species have ___ gametes and ___ chloroplasts
biflagellated, cup-shaped
green algae also has ___ in its life cycle.
Alteration of Generation