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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The fundamental cell type that conducts an action potential in the nervous system is a(n) _____.
neuron
The two major anatomical divisions of the nervous system are the
central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.
Nervous system effector cells
perform responses to signals from integration centers.
Which of the following statements regarding the nervous system is true?
Motor neurons convey signals from the CNS to effector cells.
What part of a nerve cell carries signals toward the part of the cell that houses the nucleus?
DENDRITE
In a resting neuron, the inside of the cell is _____.
negative relative to the outside of the cell because of differences in ionic composition of the fluids inside and outside of the cell
Which of the following statements about resting potential is true?
The sodium-potassium pump contributes to the resting membrane potential.
A stimulus triggers an action potential by _____.
causing sodium ions to enter the neuron
The rapid flip-flop of a neuron's membrane potential occurs as _____.
sodium ions rush into the neuron and then potassium ions rush out
Once an action potential is triggered, the first major chemical change is
a reversal of the membrane polarity, with the interior of the cell becoming positively charged.
Once the threshold potential is reached,
an action potential is inevitable.
Action potentials relay different intensities of information due to the
frequency of action potentials relative to the strength of the stimulus.
Action potentials normally travel along an axon
away from the cell body.
Which of the following choices correctly describes an action potential?
An action potential is an all-or-none event moving in one direction. A stronger stimulus generates a faster frequency of action potentials moving to the central nervous system from the sensory structure.
The gap between the transmitting and receiving neurons in a chemical synapse is known as the
synaptic cleft.
During transmission across a typical chemical synapse,
neurotransmitter molecules bind to receptors in the receiving cell's plasma membrane.
Neurotransmitters that open Na+ channels and trigger action potentials in receiving cells are called
excitatory.
Which of the following functions as a neurotransmitter?
acetylcholine
The neurotransmitter associated with sleep, mood, attention, and learning is
serotonin.
The simplest animals to display cephalization and centralization of the nervous system are
FLATWORMS
Which of the following statements regarding the peripheral nervous system is true?
Nerves are part of the peripheral nervous system.
Which of the following is part of the central nervous system (CNS)?
SPINAL CORD
Which of the following statements regarding the brain is true?
The blood-brain barrier maintains a stable chemical environment for the brain.
The relationship between spinal nerves and the spinal cord is most like the relationship between
an interstate highway and the many roads that intersect with it via on- and off-ramps.
Unlike the somatic nervous system, the autonomic nervous system is _____.
involuntary and primarily controls smooth and cardiac muscle
The autonomic nervous system
regulates the internal environment of the body.
Which of the following results from stimulation by the parasympathetic nervous system?
stimulation of saliva production
Which of the following results from stimulation by the sympathetic nervous system?
release of glucose from the liver
When you are very nervous, perhaps before you must speak in front of your college class, you notice that your mouth is dry and your heart is racing. This is most likely due to stimulation by the
sympathetic division of your autonomic nervous system.
What part of the brain sorts incoming information, such as touch signals from your hand, into categories before relaying it to the cerebral cortex?
thalamus
You start to fall but then catch yourself, regaining your balance. Which of the following brain regions is responsible for the rapid coordination of muscle activity that kept you from falling?
cerebellum
Our emotions, learning, and memory depend upon the
limbic system.
What part of the brain seems to be a memory filter?
amygdala
Schizophrenia
is a state where the patient loses the ability to distinguish what is real.
Treatments for depression often include drugs that help correct imbalances in the levels of
serotonin.
A neuron's nucleus is located in its _____.
THE CELL BODY
A nerve impulse moves toward a neuron's cell body along _____.
DENDRITES
A nerve impulse moves away from a neuron's cell body along _____.
AXONS
An impulse relayed along a myelinated axon "jumps" from _____ to _____.
node of Ranvier ... node of Ranvier
Axons insulated by a(n) _____ are able to conduct impulses faster that those not so insulated.
myelin sheath
What type of cell makes up the myelin sheath of a motor neuron?
Schwann cells
What part of a neuron relays signals from one neuron to another neuron or to an effector?
synaptic terminal
Which of these causes the release of neurotransmitter molecules?
an action potential reaching the end of the axon
The space between an axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another neuron is called a(n) _____.
synaptic cleft
Neurons store neurotransmitter molecules in vesicles located within _____.
synaptic terminals
Which part of the brain is associated with conscious thought, memory, and personality?
Cerebral cortex
Which part of the brain functions as a relay station for information to the limbic system and the cerebral cortex?
Thalamus
True or false. An individual who has suffered a stroke, which has caused damage in his cerebrum, and is now having problems with his hearing, has probably suffered damage to his occipital lobe.
FALSE