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17 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are anions?
negatively charged ions
What are cations?
positively charged ions
The kidneys regulate ___________, ____________, __________, and _________.
fluid volume
electrolytes
acids
bases
Most diuretics act by _________________.
blocking sodium reabsorption in the nephron
The most efficacious diuretics are those that affect the ______________.
loop of Henle
The most commonly prescribed loop diuretic is _________.
furosemide (Lasix)
Name two other loop diruetics.
bumetanid (Bumex)
ethacrynic acid (Edecrin)
torsemide (Demadex)
The most widely prescribed class of diuretics are the _______.
thiazides
Give four examples of thiazide diuretics.
chlorothiazide (Diuril)
methylclothiazide (Aquatensin, Enduron)
trichlormethiazide (Metahydrin, Naqua, Niazide, Diurese)
polythiazide (Renese)hydrochlorothiazide (Hydrodiuril, HCTZ)
Give two causes of respiratory acidosis.
hypoventilation
airway constriction
damage to respiratory center in medulla
Give two causes of metabolic acidosis.
severe diarrhea
kidney failure
diabetes mellitus
excess alcohol ingestion
starvation
Give two causes of respiratory alkalosis.
hyperventilation due to
asthma
high altitude
anxiety
Give two causes of metabolic alkalosis.
constipation for prolonged periods
ingestion of excess sodium bicarbonate
diruetics that cuase potassium depletion
severe vomiting
Acidosis occurs at a pH below what value?
7.35
Alkalosis occurs at a pH above what value?
7.45
Name four cations found in the blood.
calcium Ca++
magnesium Mg++
potassium K+
sodium Na+
Name four anions found in the blood.
bicarbonate HCO3--
chloride CL-
phosphate PO4- or HPO4--
sulfate SO4--