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39 Cards in this Set

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RFC-Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Loaned government money to financial institutions to save them from bankruptcy
Hundred Days
Theodore Roosevelt saved the nations banks and won his first great New Deal victory. He drafted a new banking legislation which was passed by congress and aided the banks with government supervision. Under this provision, the strong banks would be reopened with federal support, weak ones would be closed, and those in difficulty would be bolstered by government loans. Some banks opened the very next day while others would be opened later, and the American people safely deposited more cash than they withdrew into the banks. Roosevelt ended the banks crisis a without nationalizing the banks, but merely throwing the governments resources behind them and preserving private ownership. By drawing on the progressive tradition, he was able to create a moderate program of government action. Roosevelt sent fifteen additional major requests to Congress and received fifteen pieces of legislation in return, with a few of the agencies created becoming part of American life.
NRA-National Recovery Administration
Promote economic recovery and revive industry. Permitted manufacturers to establish industry-wide codes of “fair business practices” setting prices and production levels. Also provided for minimum wages and maximum working hours for labor and guaranteed labor the right to organize and bargain collectively (Section 7a). SC declared unconstitutional
AAA-Agricultural Adjustment Administration
Attempted to regulate agricultural production through farm subsidies; reworked after the Supreme Court ruled its key regulatory provisions unconstitutional in 1936; coordinated agricultural production during WWII after which it was disbanded by Supreme Court
Harry Hopkins
realized the importance of the need to do more than just keep people alive. Advocate of work relief. Felt government should put the jobless to work, not just encourage self-respect but enable them to earn enough to purchase consumer goods and thus stimulate the entire economy. Aldo had more than one million blacks working for the WPA by 1939 (color-blind policy)
WPA-Works Progress Administration
provided work relief for the unemployed. Federal works projects included building roads, bridges, and schools. Also funded projects for artists, writers, and young people. Eventually spent $11 billion on projects and provided employment for 8.5 million people
Townsend Plan
Proposed giving everyone over the age of 60 a monthly pension of $200 with the proviso that it must be spent within 30 days.
Social Security Act
Established a system of old age, unemployment, and survivors’ insurance funded by wage and payroll taxes. Did not include health insurance and id not originally cover many of the most needy groups and individuals
Wagner Act (National Labor Relations Act)
oversaw the production of all American factories. Determined priorities, allocated raw materials, and fixed prices; it told manufacturers what they could and could not produce
John L Lewis
head of the United Mine Workers, took the lead in forming the Committee on Industrial Organization. Determined to spread the benefits of union throughout industry. Renamed his group the Congress of industrial Organizations and announced that he would the Wagner Act to extend collective bargaining to the nation’s auto and steel industries
Liberty League
Group of wealthy industrialists formed this to fight what they saw as the New Deal’s assault on property rights. Attracted prominent Democrats
CCC-Civilian Conservation Corps
One of the most popular New Deal programs. Provided young men between the ages of 18 and 25 with government jobs in reforestation and other conservation projects. Employed over 300,00
Bonus Army
June 1932, a group of twenty thousand World War I veterans marched on Washington, D.C., to demand immediate payment of their “adjusted compensation” bonuses voted by Congress in 1924. Congress rejected their demands, and President Hoover, fearing that their ranks were infested with criminal and radicals, had the bonus army forcibly removed. Public relations disaster for Hoover
PWA-Public Works Administration
Headed by Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes, failed to put many people to work
CWA-Civil Works Administration
Roosevelt created this and charged Hopkins with getting people off the unemployment lines and relief rolls and get back to work. Hopkins succeeded in getting more than 4 million men and women at work by January 1934, building roads, schools, playgrounds, and athletic fields. Many workers unskilled and jobs shoddy. Roosevelt shut it down, however, when he realized the huge expenditures involved.
Harold Ickes
headed the Public Works Administration. Focused on the quality of projects rather than human needs and failed to put many people to work.
UAW-United Automobile Workers
Developed an effective strike technique. GM Workers simply sat down in the factory, refusing to leave until the company recognized their union General Motors and Henry Ford signed a contract with them. More violent acts continued and companies reached a settlement with the steel workers union in 1941
Hattie Carraway
Succeeded her husband in the Senate, winning a full term in 1934
FSA-Farm Security Administration
Sought to loan money to tenants and sharecroppers so they could acquire land of their own, but sums appropriated by Congress were too modest. It was able to extend loans to fewer then 2 percent of the nations tenant farmers
Federal Farm Board
Loaned money to aid cooperatives and bought up surplus crops in the open market in a vain effort to raise farm prices. Congress cut taxes in an attempt to restore public confidence and adopted public works projects, such as the Boulder (Hoover) Dam
Fair Labor Standards Act
Aimed to establish both minimum wages and maximum hours of work per week. Aimed at unorganized workers and met with only grudging support from unions. Threatened the low southern wages. Minimum wage of 40 cents an hour and a standard workweek of forty hours. Lead to pay raises for the twelve million workers earning less than 40 cents an hour. Set up a system that Congress could build on in the future
Charles Coughlin
Roman Catholic Priest who had originally supported FDR. Spoke to nationwide radio audiences. Appealed to the discontented with a mixture of crank monetary schemes and anti-Semitism. Broke wit he New Deal, denouncing it as the “Pagan Deal.” Founded his own National Union for Social Justice. Called for monetary inflation and the nationalization of the banking system
Huey Long
Flamboyant senator from Louisiana. Original supporter of the New Deal turned against FDR and became a major political threat to the president. Shrewd, ruthless, witty man, he had an ability to mock those in power. Spoke of taking from the rich to make “every man a king,” guaranteeing each American a home worth $5000 and an annual income of $2500. Advocated seizing all fortunes of more than $5 million and levying a tax of 100 percent on incomes greater than $1 million. Popularity showed the need for the New Deal to do more to help those still in distress. Could acquire enough votes in the 1936 elections to swing the election to the Republicans
Francis Townsend
Came up with the Townsend Plan to assist the elderly who were suffering
Alf Landon
Liberty League endorsed this Republican presidential candidate. Disappointed his backers by refusing to campaign for repeal of the popular New Deal reforms
Eleanor Roosevelt (impact on New Deal)
Spoke out throughout the decade against racial discrimination. Set an example that encouraged million of American women. Traveled around the country, eager to uncover wrongs, bring the m to the presidents attention, and rectify them
Charles Evans Hughes
Chief Justice, testified tellingly to the Senate Judiciary Committee, pointing out that the Court was up to date and not behind schedule as Roosevelt thought
Fireside Chats
Roosevelt told the public what the had done in conversational tones by means of the radio
TVA-Tennessee Valley Authority
Effort at regional planning. This agency built dams and power plants on the Tennessee River. It programs for flood control, soil conservation, and reforestation helped raise the standard of living for million in the Tennessee River Valley
Court Packing
Concerned that the conservative Supreme Court might declare all his New Deal programs unconstitutional, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt asked Congress to allow him to appoint additional justices to the Court. Both congress and the public rejected this “court packing” scheme and it was defeated
REA-Rural Electrification Administration
Transformed American rural life by making electricity available at low rates to American farm families in areas that private power companies refused to service; closed the cultural gap between rural and urban everyday life by making modern amenities, such as radio, available in rural areas
New Deal
In accepting the nomination of the Democratic Party in 1932, Franklin Delano Roosevelt promised a “new deal” for the American people. After his election, the label was applied to his program of legislation passed to combat the Great Depression. The New Deal included measures aimed at relief, reform, and recover. They achieved some relief and considerable reform but little recovery
Indian Reorganization Act
Reform measure designed to stress tribal unity and autonomy instead of attempting to transform Indians into self-sufficient farmers by granting them small plots of land.
New Deal impact on women, African Americans, Mexicans
The New Deal helped African Americans survive the depression, but it never tried to confront squarely the racial injustice built into the federal relief programs. The administrations such as the AAA, NRA, Social Security, or minimum wage covered African Americans working as farmers or domestic servants. The New Deal did, however, provide some assistance to 40 percent of the nation’s blacks during the depression. The New Deal did not assist Mexican Americans nearly enough. These people found their wages dropping 35 to 14 cents an hour by 1933. Unemployment migrant labor expanded rapidly and local authorities rounded up migrants and shipped them back to Mexico to reduce the welfare roles. Mexican American in the Southwest did receive a small amount of relief from the New Deal program when the WPA hired Mexican Americans for a variety of construction and cultural programs. Overall; the pattern was one of great economic hardship and relatively little federal assistance for Mexican Americans. Native Americans also fared slightly better under the New Deal. The Indian Reorganization Act was a reform measure designed to stress tribal unity and autonomy instead of attempting to transform Indians into self-sufficient farmers by granting them small plots of land. Native Americans were employed, but remained the most impoverished citizens in America. The New Deal offered little encouragement for women. NRA codes sanctioned lower wages for women and the minimum wage id not help those women employed in industry. Women were, however, elected into office in large numbers in the 1930’s.
CIO-Committee on Industrial Organization
John L. Lewis formed this organization. Acquired roughly 5 million members by the 1930’s. successful in the textile, rubber, electric, and metal industries. Women and African Americans benefited
NLRB
independent agency of the United States government charged with conducting elections for labor union representation and with investigating and remedying unfair labor practices
“Hooverville’s”
shanty towns built by homeless people during the Great Depression. They were named after the President of the United States at the time, Herbert Hoover, because he allegedly let the nation slide into depression.
New Deal Coalition
political coalition, created by Roosevelt in the 1930s. It included Democratic party organizations, big city machines, labor unions, minorities, liberal farm groups, intellectuals, the Mountain West, and the white South.
Great Depression impact on political parties
It led to the election of U.S. Pres. Franklin Roosevelt, who introduced major changes in the structure of the U.S. economy through his New Deal. Democrats took control of the House of Representatives