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22 Cards in this Set

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The technique called ______ fertilization has been used for about 30 years to assist couples who have had difficult conceiving a child on their own
in vitro
In vitro fertilization is when the _____ is fertilized outside of the ______
egg uterus
The ______ experiment was conducted by a graduate student in 1953 who demonstrated that the early Earth could have produced compunds, like amino acids, necessary for life
Miller
The collision of _________ with Earth has been shown to cause the formation of peptides, the chemicals which make up proteins
Comets
Three basic characteristics of life include the abilities to ______, ______, and _______
use energy, reproduce, evolve
The formation of _________, which surround all cells and act as a container for life, has been accomplished by scientists interested in the formation of early life on Earth
Membranes
Once all elements in the center of a star have been utilized for energy, the star reaches the ______ barrier
iron
In order for heavy elements to be produced, a star must _______, which generates tremendous heat allowing for the formation of many of the elements found in the universe
explode
A_______ can be made by stringing together the correct sequence of nucleotides together
gene
The 3 requirements of life include energy for growth and change, to ________, and to _________
reproduce, evolve
Stars are formed by the fusion of 3 _________nuclei to produce carbon
Helium
A star explosion, known as a _________ __________, occurs when ________ cannot be fused further
super nova iron
All hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, calcium, and iron in our body come from _______ _______ that was released by stars upon their death
star dust
Living organisms are composed of 49% ________, 24% _________, and 24% oxygen
Hydrogen carbon
The theory that life arose on Earth from organic building blocks that were present in the water on Earth's surface is known as the __________
Abiogenesis
In her experiments, Jennifer Black demonstrated that the intense heat and pressures meteorites experience during entry into earth's atmosphere actually causes amino acids in a meteorite to form __________.
Polypeptides
Energy powers life through the inter-conversion of water and carbon dioxide to form __________
carbohydrates
All the elements in the Periodic Table are formed in the star. Briefly descirbe the steps in the process of creating these elements
1. Stars obtain its energy by the fusion of hydrogen to form helium
2. As hydrogen is gradually exhausted, helium is fused to form carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and other heavier elements
3.When iron is formed, the star has no more fuel to burn and begins to die
4. The dying star first collapses before turning into a super nova and explodes
5. the energy of the super nova breaks through the iron barrier to form the remaining elements in the periodic table
In 1978 the first "test tube" baby was born and since then, in vitro fertilization(IVF) has become a mainstream procedure. Explain how IVF works in detail. Discuss 2 reasons why this procedure was so important.
A) First the female’s ovaries are stimulated by hormones, which causes the release of multiple eggs. The eggs are then collected using an ultrasonic needle that pierces the vaginal wall. Each egg is then incubated in a Petri dish with growth media in a ratio of 1:75,000 sperm cells that have been collected from the male. Once fertilized the zygote begins to divide. In 3 days they become tiny embryos consisting of 6-8 cells and are ready to be transferred to the female’s uterus.



B) It demonstrates how human life originates and provides an example to how nature can be manipulated by technology.
What is the general chemical composition of living organisms?
The primary elements that make up liviing organisms are hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, combining for 75 percent of all atoms. Other elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur are also found in living organisms. These elemental concentrations vary from the compositions of both the Earth itself and from the compositions of the universe as a whole
What is the evidence in support of the BIG BANG
A first line of evidence came from Edwin Hubble who noticed that galaxies are moving away from one another at very rapid speed. This would correspond with a small point of mass and energy exploding all of the matter is still moving away from the point. Einstein's E=mc2 also supports the theory. This equation allos for a very small point to contain huge amounts of mass and energy, which could be released in a Big Bang like event
Name three sources of organic material from space that have contributed to the building blocks of life on Earth. For each, name the kinds of material that could be contributed.
Meteorites: The chemical compositions of some meteorites are rich in organic materials, including 70 different kinds of amino acids. This finding raised the possibility that during the heavy bombardment of the infant Earth, meteorites, comets, and asteroids played a significant role in filling the Earth’s surface with the organic building blocks that are necessary for life.



Start dust: In addition large objects, Earth is showered with small specks of meteorites measuring less than 1 mm wide. This idea suggests that the delivery of organic compounds from space has occurred throughout the entire history of the Earth. This material is a rich mixture of organic compounds.



Comets: The collision of meteorite impact with the Earth could lead to the formation of organic compounds. These collisions could produce amino acids and complex peptides, which when joined together form proteins