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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why was France unstable after the war?
The war destroyed land, people were killed, industries and agriculture were destroyed. It was invaded.
What was the Lacarno Pact?
A promise between many countries in Europe to have peaceful settlements. Signed in Switzerland.
What kind of government did the fascists want?
They wanted to end republican forms of government.
What did people of the left winged parties do?
Formed a coalition government.
What prompted the Lacarno Pact?
Germany would not pay for war repairs in France.
How did Premier Blum's rule eventually fail?
Premier Blum carried out reforms. Prices were high, Blum cancelled reforms and the working class opposed the gov.
What were some of Great Britain's economic troubles?
It went into debt. People lost their jobs. High tariffs damaged trade.
Why did workers go on strikes in 1921, during the time of unemployment in Britain?
25% of Britain were unemployed and wanted to keep wages high, industrialists fought Union demands. They went on strike and the Gov made striking illegal.
Who was Ramsey McDonald?
He lead the Liberal and Labor Parties into forming a coalition gov.
What kept Britain from avoiding deep social unrest?
Strict government economy protectisnist policies and help from the construction industry.
What caused the Rebellion of the Easter Rising?
Irish wanted independance from Britain.
In 1916, why were there fighting outbreaks between the Irish army and British troops?
Because nationalists revolted and the British executed their leaders at the Easter Rising.
What were the arrangments of the treaty that divided Ireland in 1922?
Catholics were self governing in the South. Protestants were in the North and belonged to the British gov.
Why did a civil war break out?
Irish nationalists refused to this agreement.
What was the outcome of the civil war?
1937, south remained free, republic of Ireland. Religious and political factors of Northern Ireland and the Republic remained hostile to each other and Great Britain.
What were some problems in Eastern Europe?
They maintained democratic regimes, had little democratic experiences and major economic problems.
What did Austria want?
Anschluss (union with Germany)but peace treaties forbade it.
Why democracy fail in Austria?
Vienna was fighting for control against the rest of Austria. Democracy weakened by urban socialists and rural conservatives fighting. Factions had private armies and the desire for order made authoritarian rule more appealing.
In 1918, the repubic was replaced by Soviet Style Communism. Who was Bela Kun?
Communist leader ousted the occupying Romanians and nationalized land, angered ppl.
How did Kun's government fail?
Food distribution failed, Kun's gov fell and Romanians entered Budapest.
Who persuaded the Romanians to leave?
The Allies.
Who became ruler after Romanians moved?
Miklos Horthy. Under his rule, post war recovery stopped.
How did the post war new boundaries change things?
Cut factory supplies, wheat market collapsed and they asked help from League of Nations and lost control of their own destiny.
What was the Polish constitution modeled after?
France's third republic.
Did it run effectively?
Opposition groups did not allow it to run effectively. Germany's tariffs crippled the economy.
Why was the Polish democracy doomed to failure?
Jozef Pilsudski installed a military dictatorship and the bad economy and location.
Who organized the Fascist Party?
Mussolini after his return from WWI.
What's the difference between Fascism and Communism?
Fascism is nationalistic and Communism seeked a socialist economy.
Who supports Mussolini?
Wealthy landowners, professionals and business ppl. (against communism)Lower and middle class (hurt by inflation and no jobs)
What did Mussolini stress?
Anti-communism. Led campaign. Pledged he would return to Italy to the glory of the Roman Empire.
What were another name for Fascists? What was their excuse to converge on Rome?
Black Shirts- 1922 they said they wanted to defend against communists.
What title did Mussolini take after he destroyed democracy?
Il Duce. (the leader)
Italy's dictatorship did what?
Disbanded opposition parties, no freedom of speech, no strikes, secret police spy on everyone.
What was the corporatist state?
The state Italy was in when representation was according to profession.
What is the Weimar republic?
Germany as a federal republic made by the constitution it drafted in 1919.
Why was the Weimar republic not popular?
It signed the humiliating Versailles Treaty.
What problems resulted?
High unemployment and inflation soared. There were two attempted revolutions.
Communists briefly take control where?
Who was Hitler?
One of the Nazi Party's first recruits in 1920.
Who supported the Nazis?
Extreme nationalists and anti-communists.
When did the Nazis become dramatically popular?
When Germans were unhappy.
After appointed chancellor in 1933 by Pres. Paul Von Hindensburg, what did Hitler use to intimidate Reichstag?
Storm Troopers, Brown Shirts.
How did he get the Germans fired up against Communists?
He blamed a fire set to Reichstag on Communists in 1933.
What did he use to become dicator?
Privelages he had to calm the Communist revolt after the fire.
In what ways did Hitler become like Mussolini?
He viewed Mussolini's totalitarism state as an ally. He set up a Secret Police. And took title Der Fuhrer. (leader)
What was Gestapo?
Secret police that Hitler used to enforce his laws.
Who were executed?
"inferior races" liberals, socialists, and communists.
What was the name of Hitler's regime?
The third Reich.
What did Hitler promise the Germans?
To restore their glories and the regime would last 1000 years.
What is Lebensraum?
Living Space, Hitler felt they needed more room to grow.
How did he get extra land for Germans.
Took it from other races and turned their people into slaves.
What is the Rome Berlin Axis?
Alliance of the two Fascists, Mussolini and Hitler.
What was Russia's new name under Communist leaders in 1922?
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.(USSR)
What policy did the Soviet leaders follow?
War Communism.
What is War Communism?
a) nationalized Russian industries.
b) Social and economic measures.
What was the New Economic Policy (NEP)?
Lenin's plan to stop economic collapses.
What did the NEP permit?
Free enterprise, major industries controlled gov, small businesses could be privately owned and operated for a profit. Gov forced peasants onto collective farms for agriculture.
What were collective farms?
Land pooled into large farms on which people could work together as a group.
After 1924, after Lenin died who competed for power?
Trotsky and Stalin.
Who was Leon Trotsky?
Party organizer, created Red Army that defended Bolsheviks revolt. (strict Marxist)
Who was Stalin?
Emerged as a leader and exiled Tortsky, then had him killed.
What replaced the NEP in 1928?
The Soviet Union into Communist Economy.
What was the 5 yr plan?
Stalin's plan to attempt to turn the Soviet Union into a modern industrialized society.
What was the result of the 5 yr plan?
Heavy industry expanded, collective farming hoped to produce surplus 4 export- that failed. 1st 5yr plan succeeded.
What did the second 5yr plan call for?
production increases in heavy industry. but it decreased cuz food was scarce.
What were some attributes to Stalin's dictatorship?
he ruled through fear, any dissent was off to prison, soviet disbanded Orthodox church and seized its prop.arts were censored by state
in 1936, Stalin produced a new constitution, where was most of the power placed?
In the hands of the Politburo, the communist party.- stalin controlled.
What were Stalin's purges?
anyone of suspected of disloyalty.(1939 5 mil ppl were killed)
What was the Comintern and what did it do?
Communist International, it alienated many countries.
What is a market economy?
an economy in which land, labor and capital are controlled by individuals.
what is on margin?
practice of buying stocks using only the value of stocks.
What is a planned economy?
an economy in which gov directs the use of national resources and regulates economy to achieve goals.
What is a Maginot Line?
French fortifications along the borders of Germany and Luxemburg.