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45 Cards in this Set

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actinomycete
a member of a class of bacteria characterized as rod-shaped
monerans that form branched filaments
antibiotic
a chemical that can inhibit the growth of some bacteria
archaebacterium
a prokaryotic organism distinguished from other
prokaryotes by the composition of the cell membranes and walls
bacillus
a rod-shaped bacterium
broad-spectrum antibiotic
an antibiotic that is able to affect a wide variety of
organisms
capsule
in mosses, a sporangium that produces spores; in bacteria, a protective
layer of polysaccharides around the cell wall
cell wall
a rigid structure that surrounds the cells of plants, fungi, many
protists, and most bacteria
chemoautotroph
an organism that synthesizes organic compounds using
chemicals instead of light
coccus
sphere-shaped bacterium
conjugation
the union of two protists to exchange genetic material
conjugation bridge
in certain algae and fungi, a passageway for the transfer of
the genetic information from one organism to another
endospore
a dormant bacterial cell enclosed by a tough coating
endotoxin
a substance that causes a poison reaction; a compound that makes
up part of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria
enteric bacteria
Gram-negative heterotrophic bacteria that inhabit animal
intestinal tracts
eubacterium
the lineage of prokaryotes that includes all contemporary bacteria
except archaebacteria
eutrophication
the increase of nutrients in an environment
exotoxin
a toxic protein secreted by pathogenic bacteria
extreme halophile
an archaebacterium that lives in very high salt
concentrations
facultative anaerobe
an organism that can metabolize with or without
oxygen
glycocalyx
a pathway in which glucose is oxidized to pyruvic acid
Gram-negative bacterium
a bacterium that stains pink with Gram stain and
that usually has an outer covering on its cell wall
Gram-positive bacterium
a bacterium that stains purple with Gram stain and
that usually lacks an outer covering on its cell wall
Gram stain
a series of dyes that stain bacteria either purple or pink according
to the chemistry of the bacterial cell wall
heterocyst
a cell of cyanophytes that fixes atmospheric nitrogen
methanogen
a bacterium that produces methane during anaerobic
respiration
obligate aerobe
an organism that requires oxygen
obligate anaerobe
an organism that requires the absence of oxygen
pathology
the scientific study of disease
penicillin
antibiotic drug that combats bacteria by interfering with bacterial
cell-wall synthesis
peptidoglycan
a protein-carbohydrate compound found in the cell walls of
bacteria
photoautotroph
an organism that uses sunlight as an energy source
pilus
an appendage that bacteria use to attach to objects
population bloom
the sudden increase of nutrients in an environment
saprophyte
an organism that feeds on dead organic material
spirillum
spiral-shaped eubacteria
spirochete
Gram-negative, spiral-shaped, heterotrophic bacterium
staphylococcus
eubacterium occurring in grapelike clusters
streptococcus
Gram-positive eubacterium occurring in chains
sulfa drug
an antibiotic drug that combats bacteria by inhibiting bacterial cell
metabolism
tetracycline
an antibiotic drug that combats bacteria by interfering with
bacterial protein synthesis
thermoacidophile
an archaebacterium that lives only in hot, acid places
thermophilic
bacteria that grows best in temperatues between 40º C (104º F)
and 110º C (230º F)
toxin
a chemical substance, usually biological in origin, that is harmful to the
normal functioning of cells
transduction
in viruses, the process in which genetic material is transferred
from one cell to another
transformation
a process of direct transfer of nucleic acid from one bacterium
to another