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794 Cards in this Set

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NAME
this system takes in food, breaks down nutrient molecules, absorbs those molecules into the blood and then rids the body of the indigestible remains
digestive system
What are the two main groups of the digestive system? (2)
(1)those of the alimentary canal (2)accessary digestive organs
NAME
is made up of two groups of organs: those of the alimentary canal and the accessary digestive organs
Digestive system
The alimentary canal is also called the (1)
GI tract
the (1) is also called the GI tract
alimentary canal
What does the GI tract stand for?
the gastrointestinal tract
What is the GI tract?
is the continous muscular digestive tube that winds through the body
NAME
is the continous muscular digestive tube that winds through the body
GI tract
What does digests mean?
to break down into smaller fragmetns
NAME
means to break down into smaller fragments
digests
NAM
means that the digested fragments through the GI tract lining into the blood
absorbs
What does absorbs mean?
means that the digested fragments through the GI tract lining into the blood
What are the organs of the alimentary canal? (6)
(1)mouth (2)phanaryx (3)esophagus (4)stomach (5)small intestine (6)large intestine
NAME
this includes the mouth, phanaryx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, and large intestines
alimentary canal
the (1) leads to the anus
large intestines
What are the accessary digestive organs?
(1)teeth (2)tongue (3)gallbladder (4)salivary glands (5)liver (6)pancreas
NAME
includes the teeth, tongue, gallbladder, salivary glands, liver, and pancreas
accessary digestive glands
the digestive system is often times viewed as one big (1)
disassembly line
The (1) is often viewed as one big diassembly line
digestive system
What are (6) essential activites of the digestive system?
(1)ingestion (2)propulsion (3)mechancial digestion (4)chemical digestion (5)absorption (6)defecation
What is ingestion?
taking food into the mouth
NAME
is taking food into mouth
ingestion
NAME
it's essential activites are ingestion, propulsion, mechanical digestion, chemical digestion, absorption, and defacation
ingestion
What is propulsion?
includes swallowing and peristalsis
NAME
includes swallowing and peristalsis
propulsion
NAME
are major means of propulsion, involves alternate waves of contraction and relaxation of muscles in the organ walls
peristalis
What is mechanical digestion?
is the physcial preparation of food for chemical digestion by enzymes
NAME
is the physical preparation of food for chemical digestion by enzymes
mechanical digestion
What is segmentation?
are rhythamic local constriction s of the intestine
NAME
are rhytamic local constriction of the intestine
segmentation
What can segmentation do?(2)
(1)mixes food w digestive juices (2)increases the efficiency of absorption by repeatedly moving different parts of the food mass over the intestinal wall
NAME
this mixes the food w digestive juices and increases the efficiency of absorption by repeatedly moving different parts of the food mass over the intestinal wall
segmentation
What is chemical digestion?
is a series of catabolic steps in which complex food molecules are broken down in thier chemical building blocks by enzyme secreted into the lumen of the alimentary canal
NAME
is a series of catabolic steps in which complex food molecules are broken down into thier chemical building blocks by enzymes secreted into the lumen of the alimentary canal
chemical digestion
What is defacation?
elimination of ingestible substances from the body via the anus in the form of fesus
NAME
is the elimination of ingestible substnaces from the body via the anus in the form of fesus
defacation
NAME
only this ingests things
mouth
NAME
only this defecates
large intestine
What provokes digestive activity? (2)
a range of mechanical and chemical stimuli
NAME
this is provoked by a range of mechanical and chemical stimuli
digestive activity
Controls of the digestive activity are both (1) and (2)
(1)extrinsic (2)intrinsic
Controls of the (1) are both extrinsic and intrinsic
digestive activity
What are two kinds of reflex activity occur?
(1)short and long reflexes
What are short reflexes?
are mediated entirely by the local plexuses in response to the GI tract stimuli
NAME
are mediated entirely by the local plexuses in response to the GI tract
short reflexes
WHat are long reflexes?
are intibiated by stimuli arising inside and outside of the GI tract
NAMe
are intiated by stimuli arising inside and outside of the GI tract and involve CNS centers and extrinsic autonomic nerves
long reflexes
Most digestive organ reside in the (1)
abdominopelvic cavity
T or F
most of the digestive organs reside in the abdominopelivic cavity
true
T or F
All ventral body cavites contain slippary serous membranes
true
All ventral body cavites contain slippary (1)
serous membranes
What is the peritoneum?
refers to the serous membran of the ventral cavity
NAME
is the serous membrane of the ventral cavity
peritoneum
What are the (2) types of peritoneum?
(1)viscreal (2)parietal
What is the viscreal peritoneum?
covers the external surfaces of the most digestive organs
NAME
this covers the external surfaces of most of the digestive organs
viscreal peritoneum
What is the parietal peritoneum?
lines the body walls
NAME
this lines the body walls
parietal peritoneum
What is the differ btwn the parietal peritoneum and the visceral peritoneum?
(1)parietal peritoneum-covers the external surfaces of most of the digestive organs (2)visceral peritoneum--that lines the body wall
Btwn the partial and visceral peritoneum is the (1)
pertioneal cavity
Btwn the (1) and (2) is the pertioneal cavity
(1)partial (2)visceral
What is the pertioneal cavity?
is a slitlike potential space containing fluid secreted by the serous membranes
NAME
is a slitlike potential space containing fluid secreted by the serous membranes
peritoneal cavity
What does the serous fluid do for the digestive organs?
lubricates the mobile digestive organs allowing them to gluide easily across one another and alongs the body wall as they carry out their digestive activies
NAME
this lubricates the mobile digestive organs allowing them to gluide easily across one another and along the body wall as they carry out thier digestive activites
serous fluid
What is mesentary?
is a double layer of peritoneum
NAME
is a double layer of peritoneum
mesentary
NAME
this provides routes for blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves to digestive viscrea, hold organs in place, and store fat
mesentary
What does the mesentary do? (3)
(1)provides routes for blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves digestive viscrea (2)hold organs in place (3)store fat
What are the retroperitoneal organs?
are the alimentary organs that are not suspended by a mesentary
NAME
are the alimentary organs that are not supended by a mesentary
retroperitoneal organs
What are the peritoneal organs?
are alimentary organs that are suspended in the mysentry and remain in the peritoneal cavity
NAME
are alimentary organs that are suspended in the mysentry and remain in the peritoneal cavity
peritoneal organs
What are the peritoneal organs? Give examples
(1)stomach
The stomach is a example of a (1) organ
peritoneal
What are some examples of the retroperitoneal organs?
(1)the large intestine (2)most parts of the pancreas
NAME
The large intestines and most parts of the pancreas are examples of this type of organ
retroperitoneal
Intraperitoneal organs are also called (1)
peritoneal organs
(1)organs are also called peritoneal organs
intraperitoneal organs
What is peritonitis?
inflammation of the peritoneum
NAME
is the inflammation of the peritoneum
peritonitis
What can cause peritonitis?
a peircing of an abdominal wound (2)from a perforating ulcer that leaks stomach juices into the paeritoneal cavity (3)appenditis
NAME
this can be caused by a peircing of an abdominal wound, from a perforating ulcer that leaks stomach juices into the peritoneal cavity, and appednitis
peritonitis
What are the four layers from the esphagus to the anal canal? (4)
(1)mucosa (2)submucosa (3)muscularis externa (4)serosa
NAME
has four layers: the mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa
the four layers from the esophagus to the anal canal
The mucosa is also called the (1)
mucous membrane
(1) is also called the mucous membrane
mucosa
What is the mucosa?
is the inner most layers consisting of a moist epihelial membrane that lines the alimentary canal lumen from the mouth to the anus
NAME
is the inner most layer consisting of a moist epithelial membrane that lines the alimentary canal lumen from the mouth to the anus
mucosa
what are the (3) major functions of the mucosa layer?
(1)secretion of mucus, digestive enzymes, and hormones (2)absorption of the end products of digestion into the blood (3)protection against infectious disease
NAME
this layers major functions include secretion of mucus, digestive enzymes, and hormones, absorption of the end products of digestion into the blood, and protection against infectious disease
the mucosa layer
What are the (3) sublayers of the mucosa layer?
(1)a lining epithelium (2)lamina propia (3)muscularis mucosae
NAME
consists of three sublayers: a lining epithelium, lamina propia, and a muscularis mucosae
the sublayers of the mucosa
What type of tissues does the epihtelium layer have?
has simple columnar rich in mucus-secreting Goblet cells
NAME
this sublayer of the digestive system has simple columnar rich in mucus-secreting Goblet cells
epithelium layer
What does the mucous produced by the Goblet cells do?
helps to prevent certain digesive organs from being digested by enzymes
NAME
this helps to prevent certain digestive organs from being digested by enzymes
mucous produced by goblet cells in the epithelium layer
What kind of tissue does the lamnia propia have?
loose areolar connective tissue
NAME
this sublayer in the digestive system is made up of loose areolar connective tissue
lamina propia
What does MALT stand for?
the mucosa associated lampthtic tissue
Describe the lamina propia?
(1)its capillaries noursish the epithelium and absorb digest nutrients (2)its assocaited nodules, part of the MALT helps to defend us against bacteria and other pathagens
NAME
this layer's capillaries nourish the epithelium and absorb digest nutrients, and its asssociated nodules, part of the MALT helps to defend us against bacteria
lamina propia
What is the muscularis mucosae?
is a scant layer of smooth muscle cells that produces local movements of the mucosa
NAME
is a scant layer of smooth mucles cells that produces local movements of the mucosa
muscularis mucosae
NAME
a example of this sublayer is the twitching of this muscle layer dislodges food particles that have adhered to the mucosa
muscularis mucosae
What type of tissue does the submucosa have?
dense connective tissue
NAME
this tissue is just external to the mucosa
submucosa
Where is the submucosa in relation to the other two layers?
is external to the mucosa
What is the submucosa?
is a moderatley dense connective tissue containing blood and lymphatic vessels, lympathoid folliceles, and nerve fibers
NAME
is a moderately dense connective tissue containing blood and lymphatic vessels, lympathoid follicles, and nerve fibers
submucosa
What enables the submucosa in the stomach regain its normal shape after temporarily storing a large meal
its supply of elastic fibers
The elastic fibers of the submucosa enables the stomach to (1)
regain its normal shape after temporarily storing a large meal
The (1) of the submucosa in the stomach enable it to regain its nromal shape temorparily after storing a large meal
elastic fibers
(1) is also called the muscularis
muscularis externa
the muscularis externa is also called the (1)
muscularis
What is the function of the muscularis? (2)
it is responisble for segmentation and peristalsis
NAME
is responsible for segmentation and peristalsis
muscularis externa
What type tissues doe the muscualris externa have?
the inner circular layer and an outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle cells
NAME
this layer consists of a inner circular layer and an outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle cells
muscularis externa
NAME LAYER
in several places along the tract, the circular layer thickens, forming sphinceters that act as valves to prevent backflow and control of food passage from one organ ot the next
muscularis externa
What is the serosa?
is the protective outermost layer of the intarperitoneal organs
NAME
is the protective outermost layer of the intareperitoneal organs
serosa
What is the serosa really?
the vesceral peritoneum
NAME
this is really refers to / is the vesceral peritoneum
serosa
What type of tissue does the serosa have?
areolar connective tissue covered w a single layer of squamous epihelia
NAME
this layer has areolar connective tissue covered w single layer of squamous epithlia
serosa
What is the adventitia?
is ordinary fibrous connective tissue that binds the esophagus to the surranding structures
NAME
is ordinary fibrous connective tissue that binds the esophagus to the surranding structures
adventita
What kind of tissue does the adventita have?
is ordinary fibrous connective tissue
The mouth is the only part of the alimentary canal that is inolved in (1)
ingestion
NAME
this is the only part of the alimentary canal involved in ingestion
the mouth
NAME
contains the releated accessary glands such as the teeth, salivary glands, and tongue
mouth
What does the saliva do in the mouth?
has enzymes that begin the process of chemical digestion
The (1) begins the propulsion process of swallowing which carries food through the pharnyx and esophagus to the stomach
tongue
the tongue begins the (1)process of swallowing which carries good through the pharanyx and esophagus to the stomach
propulsion
The mouth is also called the (1) or (2)
(1)oral cavity (2)buccal cavity
The (1) is also called the oral cavity or buccal cavity
mouth
THe mouth is also called the (1) or buccal cavity
oral cavity
The mouth is also called the oral cavity or (2)
buccal cavity
What is the mouth?
is a mucosa lined cavity
NAME
is a mucosa lined cavity
mouth
The anterior opening of the mouth is called the (1)
oral orfice
What is the oral orfice?
the anterior opening of the mouth
The oral cavity is continous w the (1)
oropharnynx
The (1) is continous w the oropharnyx
oral cavity
What kind of tissues lines the walls of the mouth? and what does it help to do?
it is lined w startifed squamous eptihleium which can with stand considerable friction
NAME
this is lined w startified squamous epithleium that can with stand considerable friction
the walls of the mouth
The tongue is slightly (1) for extra protection against abrasion during eating
kerantinized
NAME
this slightly keratnized for extra protection against abrasion during eating
tongue
Why is the tongue slightly kerantized?
for extra protection against abrasion during eating
How does the oral mucosa respond to injury?
by producing antimicrobal peptides called defensins
What are defensins?
are antimicrobal peptides that are produced in response to injury
NAME
are antimicrobal peptides that are produced in response to injury
defensins
What kind of tissues does the lips and cheeks have?
core of skeletal muscles covered externally covered by skin
NAME
has a core of skeletal muscles covered externally covered by skin
lips and cheeks
What muscle forms the lips?
orbicularis oris
What is the orbicularis oris?
is the muscles that forms the lips
NAME
is the muscles that forms the cheeks
the bucinators
what is the bucinator?
is the muscle that forms the cheeks
What do the lips and cheeks do?
help keep food btwn the teeth when we chew and play a small role in speech
NAME
these help to keep food btwn the teeth when we chew and play a small role in speech
lips and cheeks
What is vetibule?
is the recess bounded externally by the lips and cheeks internally by the gums and teeh
NAME
is the recess bounded externally by the lips and cheeks internally by the gums and teeth
vestible
What is the oral cavity proper?
is the area that lies within the teeth and gums
NAME
is the area that lies within the teeth and gum
oral cavity proper
What is the red margin?
is the reddened area where one applies lipstick or lands a kiss
NAME
is the reddened area where one applies lipstick or lands a kiss
red margin
Why does the red margin appear red?
bc this transtional zone is poorly keratinized skin and transuluscent allowing the red color of blood in the underlying capillaries to show through
What is the labial frenulum?
is a mediain fold that joins the internal aspect of each lip to the gum
NAME
is the median fold that joins the internal aspect of each lip to the gum
labial frenulum
What is the palate?
bone that forms the roof of the mouth
NAME
bone that forms the roof of the mouth
palate
What are the two parts of the palate?
(1)hard (2)soft palate
What is the hard palate?
forms the rigid surface against which the tongue forces food during chewing
NAME
forms the rigid surface against which the tongue forces food during chewing
the hard palate
What is the soft palate?
is a mobile fold formed mostly of skeletal muscle
NAME
is a mobile fold formed mostly of skeletal muscle
soft palate
What does the soft palate do when we swallow?
rise reflexively to close off the nasopharnyx
NAME
when we swallow this rises reflexivly to close off the nasopharnyx
the soft palate
What is the tongue?
occupies most of the mouth and fills most of the oral caivty when the mouth is closed
NAME
occupies most of the mouth and fills most of the oral cavity when the mouth is closed
tongue
The tongue is composed of interlacing bundles of (1)
skeletal muscle fibers
NAME
is composed of interlacing bundles of skeletal muscle fibers
tongue
What does the tongue do during chewing?
it grips the food and constantly repostions it bwn the teeth
NAME
during chewing, this grips the food and constantly repositions it btwn the teeth
tongue
What is the bolus?
is a compact mass that is formed when the tongue mixes food w saliva
the tongue also mixes food w salvia and forms it into a compact mass called (1)
bolus
What is the filform papillae?
gives the tongue surface a roughness that aids in licking semisold foods
NAME
gives the tongue surface a roughness that aids in licking semisold foods
filform papillae
What is fungiform papillae?
is mushroom shaped that each has a vascular core that gives it's reddish hue
NAME
is a mushroom shaped that each has a vascular core that gives it's reddich hue
fungiform papillae
Both the (1) and (2)house taste buds
fungiform and circumvallate papillae
Where are the taste buds on the tongue?
in the fungiform and circumvallate papillae
Circumvallate papillae are also called (1)
vallate papillae
(1) are also called the vallate paillae
circumvallate papillae
What are the circumvallate papillae?
are located in a V shaped row at the back of the tongue
NAME
are located in a V-shaped row at the back of the tongue
circumvallate papillae
T or F
the papillae are the taste buds
false
What is the sulcus terminalis?
is a groove that distniguishes the anterior two thirds of the tongue
NAME
is a groove that distnigushes the anterior two thirds of the tongue
sulcus terminalis
T or F
the muscosa covering the root of the tongue lacks papillae
true
A number of glands assocaited w the oral caivty secrete (1)
salvia
What are the salivary glands?
secrete salvia
NAME
these glands secrete salvia
salivary glands
What are the functions of the salvia? (4)
(1)cleanses the mouth (2)disolves food chemicals so that they can be tasted (3)moistens food and aids in compacting it into bolus (4)contains enzymes that begin the chemical breakdown of starchy foods
NAME
this cleanses the mouth, disolves food chemicals so that they can be tasted, moistens food and aids in compacting it into bolus, and contains enzymes that begin the chemical breakdown of starchy foods
salvia
Where is most of the salvia produced?
by the extrinsic salivary glands
What are the extrinsic salviary glands?
produce most of the salvia
NAME
produce most of the saliva
extrnistic salviary glands
the intrinsic salviary glands are also called the (1)
buccual glands
(1) the are also called the buccual glands
intrinisic salviary glands
NAME
these glands are scattered throughout the oral cavity mucosa
buccal glands
The buccal glands are scattered throughout the (1)
oral cavity mucosa
What is the mumps?
is the inflammation of the parotid glands
NAME
is the inflammation of the partoid glands
mumps
What causes the mumps?
mumps virus
NAME
this is caused by the mumps virus
mumps
What are the two kinds of secretory cells that make of the salviary glands?
(1)serous cells (2)mucous cells
NAME
this gland is composed of two types of secretory cells:serous cells and mucous cells
salviary glands
What are serous cells?
produce a watery secretion contaning enzymes, ions, and tiny bit of mucin
NAME
produce a watery secretion containing enzymes, ions, and tiny bit of mucin
serous cells
What are mucous cells?
produce mucus
NAME
produces a mucus
mucous cells
What is mucus?
a stringy viscous solution
NAME
is a stringy viscous solution
mucus
NAME
this gland contains only serous cells
parotid glands
What kind of cells do the parotid glands contian?
only serous cells
NAME (2)
both of these two glands contain serous and mucous cells
(1)submandibular glands (2)buccual glands
what kinds of cells do the submandibular and buccal glands have? (2)
(1) serous (2)mucous cells
What kinds of cells do the sublingual glands have?
mostly mucous cells
NAME
this glands mostly contain mucous cells
sublingual glands
What is the compostion of the saliva?
largely water -- 97% to 99% and is highly acidic
NAME
this largely water (97% to 99%) and is highly acidic
salvia
What is mucin?
forms thick mucous that lubricates the oral cavity and hyrdrates foodstuff when desolved in water
NAME
when this is disolved inwater, it forms a thick mucous that lubricates the oral cavity and hyrdrates foodstuff when desolved in water
mucin
What parts of the saliva protect the oral caivty against mirobes?
(1)IgA antibodies (2)lysozyme (3)a cyande compound (4)defensins
NAME
is composed of IgA antibodies, lysozyme, a cyandie compound, and defensins
saliva
What are defensins?
function to call defensive cells into the mouth for battle
NAME
function to call defensive cells into the mouth for battle
defensins
T or F
the intrinsic salivary glands secrete salvia continousaly in amounts just sufficeint to keep the mouth moist
true
What primarly controls salivation?
the parasympathetic division
The (1) division of the nervous system primarly controls salivation
paprasympathetic
The parasympathetic division of the nervous system primarly controls (1)
salivation
How does natural bacteria at the back of the tongue help the digestive system?
convert food derived nitrates in saliva into nitrates are converted into nitric oxide in an acid environment
NAME
these convert food derived nitrates in salvia into nitrates are converted into nitric oxide in an acid anvironment
natural bateria at the back of the tongue
T or F
sometimes the just the sight or smell of food can trigger salivation
true
What does the sympathetic division cause in the oral cavity?
release of a thick mucin rich salvia and extreme activtion it causes dry mouth
NAME
this nervous system can cause the release of a thick mucin rich salvia, and in exterem activation it causes dry mouth
sympathetic division
From the mouth, bolus passes posteriorly into the (1) and then (2)
(1)oropharnyx (2)larynopharnyx
What is the esophagus?
a mascular tube that is collapsed when it is not involved in food propulsion
NAME
is a muscular tube that is collapsed when it is not involved in food propulsion
eosphagus
What does the epiglottis do?
when food moves through the laryngopharynx and is routed into the eosphagus, it closed off to the larnyx to food entry
NAME
this closes off the larnyx to food entry when food moves through the larynogopharynx and is routed off to the larnyx
epiglottis
the (1) of the epiglottis surrounds the (2), and helps to keep it closed when food is being swallowed
(1)muscular diaphragm (2)sphinceter
the muscular diaphragm of the (1) surrounds the spihinceter and helps to keep it closed when food is being swallowed
epiglottis
What does GERD stand for?
gastroesophageal reflux disease
What is the first symptom of GERD?
heartburn
Heartburn is the first symptom o f (1)
GERD
What is heartburn?
is the burning, radiating substernal pain that ocurs when the acdic gastric juice regugritates into the esophagus
NAME
is the burning radiating substernal pain that ocurs when the acdic gastric juice regurgriates into the esophagus
heartburn
NAME
this is most likely to ocur when one has eaten or drunk to excess and in conditins that force abdominal contents superiorly such as pregrancy, obesity, and running which cuases the stomach contents to splash upward each step
Heartburn
What hiatel hernia?
a structural abnoramility in which the superior part of the stomach protudes slightly above the diaphragm
NAME
is a structural abnormaility in which the superior part of the stomach protudes slightly above the diaphragm
hiatel hernia
if esposides of heartburn are frequent and prolonged it can cause (1)and (2)
(1)esophagitis (2)esophagela ulcers
If esposides of (1)are frequent and prolonged it can cause esophagitis and esophagela
heartburn
T or F
unlike the mouth and pharnyx, the esophagus wall has all four the basic alimentary canal layers
true
Does the mouth have all four of the basic alimentary canal layers?
no
Does the pharanyx have all four of the basic alimentary canal layers?
no
Does the esophagus walls have all of the four basic layers of the alimentary canal?
yes
the esophageal mucosa contains a (1) stratifed squamous epithelia
nonkertanized
What is unique about the mucosa layer of the esophagus?
it has nonkertanized strafied squamous eptihelia
What happens when the esophagus is empty?
it mucosa and submucsa are thrown into longitudinal fold
NAME
when this happens its mucosa and submucosa are thrown into longitudinal fold
when the esophagus is empty
What happens when the esophagus has food in transit?
the longitudal folds straighten out
NAME
when this happens, its longitudal fold striagten out
when the esophagus has food in transit
In the esophagus, the submucosa contains mucus secreting (1)
esophageal glands
NAME
this GI organ has a submucosa that contains mucus secereting esophageal glands
esophagus
Does the esophagus have a serosa layer?
no instead it has a fibrous adventitia of connective tissues
NAME
instead of a serosa this alimentary canal organ has a fibrous advventitia of connective tissue
esophagus
What are the differ functions of the mouth?
(1)ingests (2)begins mechanical digestion by chewing (3)intitaes propulsion by swallowing
NAME
its functions are ingestion, begins mechanical digestion by chewing and initiates propulsion by swallowing
mouth
What is amylase?
is an enzyme found in the saliva that begins the chemical breakdown of polysarccrides such as strach and glycogen
NAME
is an enzyme found in the saliva that begins the chemical breakdown of the polysarccrides such as starch and glycogen into smaller linked fragments of glucose
amylase
NAME (2)
these organs merley serve as conducts to pass food from the mouth to the stomach
pharynyx (2)esophagus
What is the function of the pharnyx?
propulsion
What is the function of the esophagus?
propulsion
the pharanyx and esophagus merly serve as conduits to (1)
pass food from the mouth to the stomach
What is mastication?
means chewing
NAME
refers to chewing
mastication
What does deglutition mean?
refers to swallowing
nAME
refers to swallowing
degulitition
As food enters the mouth, its mechanical breakdown begins w (1)
mastication
What is the stomach?
is a temporary "storage tank" where chemical breakdown of protiens begins and food is converted to a creamy paste called chyme
NAME
is a temporary "storage tank" where chemical breakdown of protiens begins and food is converted to a creamy paste called chyme
stomach
What is chyme?
is the creamy paste that food is converted to in the stomach
NAME
is the creamy paste that food is converted into in the stomach
chyme
NAME
this organ lies in the upper left quardrent of the peritoneal cavity, nearly hidden by the liver and the diaphragm
stomach
NAME
this organ is slightly larger than the large intestine
stomach
What are the (4)main regions of the stomach
(1)fondus (2)body (3)pyloric region (4)cardiac region
What is the cardiac region?
surrounds the cardiac orifce through which food enters the stomach from the esophagus
NAME
this surrounds the cardiac orfice through which food enters the stomach from the esophagus
cardiac region
What is the fundus?
is the dome shaped part tucked beneath the diaphragm
NAME
is the dome shaped part tucked beneath the diaphragm
fundus
What is the body of the stomach?
is the midportion of the stomach
NAME
is the midportion of the stomach
fundus
What is the pyloric sphincter?
which controls the stomach emptying
NAME
this controls the stomach emptying
pyloric sphincter
Does the stomach have all of the 4 layer of the alimentary canal?
yes but its muscularis and mucosa are modified for the speacil roles of the stomach
How is the mucularis of the stomach unique?
by the smooth muscles runs obliquely
NAME
for this organ in the mucularis, the smooth muscles run obliquely
stomach
What does the mucularis having smooth muscle runing obliquely help w the function of the stomach?
the arrangment allows the stomach not only to move food along the tract, but also churn the food, mix, abd pummel the food, physcially breaking it down into smaller fragments
NAME
this arrangement in the stomach allows the stomach not only to move food along the tract, but also churn the food, mix, and pummel the food, physcially breaking it down into smaller fragements
the mucularis having smooth muscles that run obliquely
What are the gastric glands?
produce the stomach secretion called gastric juice
NAME
this produces the stomach secretion called gastric juice
gastric glands
the gastric pits lead to the (1)
gastric glands
what is unique about the mucusoa layer of the stomach?
goblet cells produce a protective two layer of mucous in which the surface layer consists of viscous mucus that taps a later of bicarbonate-rich fluid beneath it
NAME
this has goblet cells produce a protective two layer of mucous in which the surface layer consists of viscous mucus that taps a later of bicarbonate-rich fluid beneath it
the mucusoa layer of the stomach
What are four types of secretory cells can be found in the stomach?
(1)mucous neck cells (2)parietal cells (3)cheif cells (4)enteroendrocrine cells
What are mucous neck cells?
are found in the neck region of the glands and produce a different type of mucous then what is secreted from the Goblet cells
NAME
are found in the neck region of the glands and produce a different type of mucous then what is secreted from the Goblet cells
mucous neck cells
What are the parietal cells?
secrete HCL and instrinsic factors
NAME
these cells secrete HCL and intrinsic factor
parietal cells
Where are the parietal cells located?
are found mainly in region of the glands scattered among the cheif cells
NAME
these secrety cells are mainly found in the middle region of the stomach and scattered amoung the cheif cells
parietal cells
How does the acidty of the stomach help w the digestion of food?
by denaturing protiens and breaking down cell walls of plant foods
What are intrinsic factor?
is a glycoprotien required for viatmin B12 absorption in the small intestine
NAME
is a glycoprotien required for vitamin B12 absorption in the small intestine
intrinsic factor
What are chief cells?
produce pepsinogen
NAME
produce the pepsinogen
chief cells
What is pepsinogen?
is the inactive form of the protien digestive enzyme pepsin
NAME
is the inactive form of the protien digestive enzyme pepsin
pepsinogen
Where can you find chief cells?
in the basal regions of the gastric glands
NAME
these secertry cells of the stomach can be found mainly in the basal regions of the gastric glands
chief cells
What happens when chief cells are stimulated?
the first pepinogen molecules molecules release HCL
NAME
this secretey cells of the stomach when stimualted, the firt peinogen molecule they release stimulates HCL
chief cells
What else do cheif cells secrete in insignificant amounts?
lipases
NAME
these secretory cells of the stomach, also secrete insignficants amounts of lipases
chief cells
What are enteroendocrine cells?
release a variety of hormone or hormonelike products directly into the lamina propia
NAME
release a variety of hormones or hormonelike products directly into the lamina propia
enteroendocrine cells
What are the products of enterendocrine cells? (6)
(1)gastrin (2)histamine (3)endorphins (4)serotonin (5)cholecystokinin (6)somatostatin
NAME
this secretory cells of the stomach, products are gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin
enterendocrine cells
What gastrin?
plays essential roles in regulating stomach secretion and mobility
NAME
this plays an essential role in regulating stomach secretion and mobility
gastrin
T or F
the stomach is a passive vicitim of its formdiable environment
false
How does the stomach prevent from becoming a passive victim of its formidable environment?
by producing the mucosal barrier
What is the mucosal barrier?
protects the stomach from becoming a passive victim of its formidable environment
What are four (4)factors that create the mucosal barrier?
(1)a thick coating of bicarbonte -rich mucus in built up on the stomach wall
(2)the epithelial cells of the mucosa are joined together by tight junctions that prevent gastric juice from leaking into the underlying tissue layers (3)deep in the gastric glands, where the protective alkaline mucus is absent, the external faces of the plasma membrane of the glandular cells are impermeable to HCL
(4)Damaged epithelial mucosal cells are shed and quickly replaced by division of undiffereniated stem cells
How often is the stomach epithelum renewed?
every three to six days
Anything that breaches the gel like mucosal barrier causes (1)
inflammation
Anything that (1) causes in inflammation of the stomach
breaches the gel like mucosal barrier
What are gastric ulcers?
are reosions of the stomach wall
NAME
are erosions of the stomach wall
gastric ulcers
What are some common predisposing factors for gastric ulcers?
(1)hypersecretion of HCL acid (2)hyposecretion of mucus
NAME
some commone predisposing factors for gastric ulcers are hypersecretion of HCL acid and hyposecretion of mucus
gastric ulcers
T or F
although acid conditions are necessary for ulcer formation, acidy in and of itself is not sufficant to cause ulcer formation
true
for 90 % of cases of gastric ulcers, what is the cause of the recurrent ulcers?
helicobacter pylori bacteria that burrow beneath the mucus and destroy the protective layer
NAME
recurrence of this in 90% of cases is beleived to be caused by helicobacter pylori bacteria that burrow beneath the mucus and destroy the protective layer
gastric ulcers
What are some products that help the helicobacter pylroi do there dirty work?
(1)urease (2)cytotoxin (3)several protients that act as chemotactic agens to attract microphages
NAME
this secretes products such as (1)urease (2)cytotoxin (3)several protients that act as chemotactic agens to attract microphages to help do its dirty work
helicobacter pylroi
What is urease?
an enzyme that breaks down urea to CO2 and ammonia
NAME
this is a enzyme that breaks down urea to CO2 and ammonia
urease
What is cyotoxin?
lesions the stomach epiethelum
NAME
this lesions the stomach epithelum
cyotoxin
Protien digestion is intiated in the (1)
stomach
Where is protien digestion start?
stomach
(1)digestion is intiated in the stomach
protien
T or F
protien digestion is intiated in the stomach and is essentially the only type of enzymatic digestion that occurs here
true
Dietary protiens are denatured by (1)
HCL
in infants, however, the stomach glands also secerte (1)
rennin
in (1), however, the stomach glands also secrete rennin
infants
What is rennin?
is enzyme found in infants that acts on milk protien converting it to a curdy substance that looks like soured milk
NAME
is an enzyme found in infants that acts on milk protien converting it to a curdy substance that looks like soured milk
rennin
What substances pass easily though the substance?
alcholol and asprin bc they are lipid souble
t or f
alcoholol and asprin do not pass easily through the stomach
false
What is the only stomach function essential to life for secretion?
intrinsic factor
What is an intrinsic factor?
is required for intestinal abosorption of vitamin B12
NAME
this is required for intestinal absorption of vitamin B12
intrinsic factor
What is vitamin B12 needed for?
to produce mature erythrocytes
NAME
this is needed to produce mature erythrocytes
vitamin B12
What happens if there the stomach does not have enought B12 or instrinic factors to absorb vitamin b12?
pernicious anemia
What causes pernicious anemia?
it acurs if there is not enough vitamin B12 or enough of instrinic factor to absorb vitamin B12
What controls gastric secretion?
both neural and hormonal mechanisms
NAME
this type of secretion is controled by neural and hormonal mechanisms
gastric secretion
What is gastrin stimulate?
secretions of enzymes and HCL
NAME
this secretes enzymes and HCl
gastrin
Where do stimuli for gastric secretion act on (3)?
(1)the head (2)stomach (3)small intestine
What are the three phases of gastric secretion?
(1)cephalic reflex (2)gastric (3)intestinal
What is the cephalic reflex?
is prior to food entry
What is the gastric phase?
is once food enters the stomach
What is the intestinal phase?
is as partially digested foods enter the duodenum
NAME
this phase is prior to food entry
cephalic reflex
NAME
this phase is once the food enters the stomach
gastric phase
NAME
this phase ocurs as partially digested foods enter the duodeum
intestinal phase
What are two events of the cehphalic phase? (2)
(1)excitary phase (2)inhibitaroy
NAME
this phase has two events: the exictary and inhibitary
the cehphalic phase
What are some excitatory events ? (2)
(1)sight or thought of food (2)stimulation of taste or smell receptors
NAME TYPE OF EVENT THIS IS
the sight or thought of food
excitatory events
NAME TYPE OF EVENT THIS IS
the stimulation of tastes or smell receptors
excitatory event
NAME
this include the sight or thought of food and stimulation of taste or smell receptors
excitatory events
What are some inhibitaroy events?
(1)the lose of appetite or depression (2)decrease in the stimulation of the parasympathic division
NAME
this includes the lose of appetite or depression and decrease in the stimulation of the parasympathic division
inhibitaroy events
NAME EVENT THAT IT IS OCURING
the lose of appetite or depression
inhibitarory events
What are some excitatory events during the gastric phase? (4)
(1)stomach distension (2)activation of strech receptors (3)activation of chemoreceptors by peptides, caffine, and rising pH (4)relase of gastrin into the blood
NAME EVENT AND WHICH PHASE IT OCURS IN
stomach distension
excitartory event in the gastric phase
NAME EVENT AND WHICH PHASE IT OCURS IN
activation of strech receptors
excitatory events during the gastric phase
NAME EVENT AND WHICH PHASE IT OCURS IN
activation of chemoreceptors by peptides, caffine, and rising ph
excitaroy event during the gastric phase
NAME EVENT AND WHICH PHASE IT OCURS IN
release of gastrin into the blood
excitatory event during the gastric phaes
NAME EVENT AND PHASE IT OCURS IN
(1)stomach distension (2)activation of strech receptors (3)activation of chemoreceptors by peptides, caffine, and rising pH (4)relase of gastrin into the blood
excitatory events during the gastric phase
What are some inhibitaroy events that ocur during the gastric phase?
(1)a Ph lower than 2 (2)emotional upset that overrides the parasympathetic nervous sytsem
NAME EVENT AND PHASE IN WHICH IT OCURS
a ph lower than 2
inhibitary event in the gastric phase
NAME EVENT AND PHASE IN WHICH IT OCURS
emotional upset that overrides teh parasympathetic nervous system
inhibitaroy event in the gastric phase
NAME EVENT AND PHASE IN WHICH IT OCURS
a Ph lower than 2 and emotional upset that overrides the parasympathetic nervous sytsem
inhibitaory event in the gastric phase
What are some exictatory events in the intestinal phase? (2)
(1)low ph (2)partially digested food enters the deodenum and encourages gastric activity
What are some inhibitory events in the itestinal phase? (3)
(1)distension of the deodenum (2)presence of fatty, acidic or hypertonic chyme (3)irratants in the deodenum
NAME WHICH EVENT AND PHASE IT IS OCURING IN
low ph
exicatory event in the itestinal phase
NAME WHICH EVENT AND PHASE IT IS OCURING IN
partially digested food enters the deodenum and encourages gastric activity
exicartory event in the intestinal phase
NAME WHICH EVENT AND PHASE IT iS OCURING IN
low ph and partially digested food enters the deodumum and encourages gastric activity
exicatory phase in the intestinal phase
NAME WHICH EVENT AND PHASE IT OCURS IN
distension of the deodenum, presence of fatty, acidic, or hypertonic chyme and irratants in the deodenum
inhibittory events in the intestinal phase
NAME WHICH EVENT AND PHASE IT IS OCURING IN
irrtants in the deodenum
inhibitoary event in e intestinal phase
NAME WHICH EVENT AND PHASE IT IS OCURING IN
distentions of the deodenum
inhibitoary event in the intestinal phase
NAME WHICH EVENT AND PHASE IT IS OCURING IN
presence of fatty, acidic, or hypertonic chyme
inhibitoary event in the intestinal phase
The stomach (1)to accomadate incoming food and the pressure remains the same
strech
Why is the pressure in a filling stomach stay constant?
(1)the reflex mediated relaxation of the smooth muscles (2) the plasicty of visceral smooth muscle
The reflex mediated relaxation of the smooth muscles and the plasicty of the visceral smooth muscle keeps the (1)during when the stomach is filling up with food
pressure constant
As the food moves through the esophasus, the stomach (1)
relaxes
What is receptative relaxtion?
refers to when as the food moves through the esophagus, the stomach muscles relax
NAME
this refers to when as the food moves through the esophasus, the stomach muscles relax
recepative relaxation
What is the recepative relexation coordinated by?
the swallowing center of the brain stem and mediated by the vagus nerves
NAME
this is coordinated by the swallowing center of the brain stem and mediated by the vagus nerves
recepative relexation
What is adaptive relaxiation?
the phenomenon is in which the stomach dilates in response to gastric filling which activates strech receptors in the wall
NAME
is the phenomenon in which the stomach dilates in response to gastric filling which activates strech receptors in the wall
adapative relaxation
What does adapative relaxation depend on?
nitric oxide (NO)
NAME
this depends on nitric oxide (NO)
adapative relaxation
What is plasticity?
is the intrinsic ability of visceral smooth muscle to exhibit the stress relaxation response
nAME
is the intrinsic ability of the visceral smooth muscle to exhibit the stress relaxation response
plasticity
The larger the meal, the (1)
faster the stomach empties
Which moves ths through the stomach faster a carb rich meal or a fat rich meal?
a carb rich meal
Which moves trough the stomach slower a carb rich meal or a fat rich meal?
fat a rich meal
Why do fat take longer to move through the stomach?
bc fats form an oily layer at the top of the chyme and are digested more slowlyby enzymes acting in the intestines
NAME
meals rich in this form an oily layer at the top of the chyme and are digested more slowly by eznymes acting in the intestines
fat
Vomiting is also called (1)
emesis
(1)is also called emesis
vomiting
What are the most common causes of vomiting?
(1)bacterial toxins (2)excessive alcholol (3)spicy foods (4)certain drugs
Bacterial toxins, excessive alcholol, spicy foods, and certain drugs are common causes of(1)
vomiting
During vomiting, (1)stream from the irrated sites to the emetic centers of the medulla and initiate a number of motor response
sensory impulses
During vomiting, sensory impulses stream from the irrated sites to the (1) of the medulla and initiate a number of motor response
emetic centers
What causes vomiting? (2)
(1)sensory impulses stream from the irrated sites to the emetic centers from the irrated sites of the medulla and initiate a number of motor responses (2)the diaphragm nad abdominal wall muscles contract increasing intra abdominal pressure, and the soft palate rises to close off the nasal passage and the stomach contents is forced up through the esophagus and pharynx
NAME
this is the body's major digestive organ
small intestine
NAME
w.in its twisted passageways, digestion is completed and viturally all absorption ocurs here
small intestine
NAME
this is the longested alimentary tube
small intestine
What are the (3) subdivisions of the small intestines?
(1)duodenum (2)jejunum (3)ileum
NAME
has three subdivisions: duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
small intestines
What are three features of the duodenum?
(1)bile duct (2)the main pancreatic duct (3)hepatopancreatic ampulla
NAME
has three main features, the bile duct, the main pancreatic duct, and the hepatopancreatic ampulla
duodenum
What is the bile duct?
delivers bile from the liver
NAME
delivers bile from the liver
bile duct
What is the main pancreatic duct?
carries pancreatic juice from the pancreas
NAME
carries pancreatic juice from the pancreas
the main pancreatic duct
What is the hepatopancreatic ampulla?
is the bulblike point in the wall of the duodenum where the bile duct and the main pancreatic duct unite
NAME
is the bulblike point in the wall of the duodenum where the bile duct and the main pancreatic duct unite
hepatopancreatic ampulla
What is the hepatopancreatic sphincter?
is a muscular valve that controls the entry of bile and pancreatic juice
NAME
is a muscular valve that controls the entry of bile and pnacreatic juice
hepatopancreatic sphincter
The (1) is also called the sphincter of Oddi
heptapancreatic sphincter
The hepapancreatic sphincter is also called the (1)
sphincter of Oddi
The small intestine is highly adapted for nutrient (1)
absorption
What are three structural modifications that help to provide the large surface area of the stomach? (3)
(1)circular folds (2)Villi (3)microvilli
NAME
the circular folds, villi, and microvilli help to increase the surface area of this organ
small intestines
Circular folds are also called (1)
plicae circulares
(1) are also called plicae circulares
circular folds
What are circular folds?
are deep permanent folds of the mucosa and submucosa
NAME
are deep permanent folds of the mucosa and submucosa
circular folds
What do circular folds do?
help force chyme to spiral through the lumen, slowing movement and allowing time for nutrient absorption
NAME
this helps to force chyme to spiral through the lumen and allowing time for nutrient absorption
circular folds
What are villi?
are fingerlike projections of the mucosa that give it a velvety texture
NAME
are fingerlike projections of the mucosa that give it a velvety texture
villi
What is lacteal?
is a lympth capillary
NAME
is a lympth capillary
lacteal
Foodstuffs in the small intestines are absorbed through the (1) into the (2)
(1)epihtelial cells (2)both the capillary bed and the lacteal
What does a slip of smooth muscle in the villus core of the small intestines allow for? (2)
(1)increase the contact btwn the villus and the contents of the intestinal lumen making absorption more effective (2)"milk" lymph along through the lacteals
What are microvilli?
are tiny projections of the plasma memebrane of the absorptive cells of the mucosa
What is the brush barrier?
refers to the fuzzy appearance of the microvilli along the plasma membrane of the small intestines
nAME
this refers to the fuzzy apearance of microvilli along the plasma membrane of the small intestines
brush barrier
What are the brush border enzymes?
enzymes in the microvilli that complete the digestion of carbs and protiens in the small intestines
nAME
refers to the enzymes in the microvilli that complete the digestion of carbs and protiens in the small intestines
brush border enzymes
What is different about the layers of the small intestine?
(1)the muscoas is largely simple columnar w absorptive cells, golbet cells, enteroendocrine cells, intraepithelial lymphocytes and has crypts of Lieberkuhn (2)the submucosa contains peyer's patches, and duodenal glands
are the 4 layers of the wall in the small intestine the same?
no
Which 4 layers of the wall in the small intestine are different? (2)
(1)mucosa (2)submucosa
What are intraepitheila lymphocytes?
T cells that upon encountering antigents, they immediately release cytokines that cuase killing of infected target cells
NAME
in the small intestine, these are T cells that opon encountering antigens, they immediately release cytokines that cause killing of infected target cells
intraepithelia lymphocytes
NAME
the mucosa layer of this organ has absorptive cells, golbet cells, enteroendocrine cells, intraepithelial lymphocytes and has crypts of Lieberkuhn
small intestines
intestinal crypts are also called (1)
crypts of Leiberjuhn
(1)are also called crypts of Leiberjuhn
intestinal crypts
What are intestinal cyrpts?
have intestinal cells in thier lining that secrete intestinal juice
NAME
this has intestinal cells in thier lining that secrete intestinal juice
intestinal cyrpt
What is intestinal juice?
a watery mixture containing mucus that serves as a carrier fluids for absorbing nutrients from chyme
NAME
is a watery mixture containing mucus that serves as a carrier fluid for absorbing nutrients from chyme
intestinal juice
What are Paneth cells?
are found in the intestinal crypts and fortify the small intestines defeneses by releasing lyosymes
NAME
these are found in the intestinal cyrpts and fortify the small intestines defenses by releasing lyosymes
paneth cells
How is the submucosa of the small intestine differ?
it contains peyer's patches and duodenal glands
NAME
this ogran's submucsa is differ bc it has peyer's patches and duodenal glands
the small intestine
What are Peyer's patches?
are aggregated lymphoid follicles
NAME
are aggregated follicles
peyer's patches
Why do peyer's patches increase at the end of the small intestines?
to prevent the large amount of bacteria from entering the blood streams
NAME
towards the end of the small intestines, there are this to prevent the bateria from entering the blood
Peyer's patches
What are duodenal glands?
produce an alkaline mucus that helps neutralize the acdic chyme moving in from the stomach
NAME
produce an alkaline mucus that helps neutralize the acdic chyme moving in from the stomach
duodenal glands
Where are the duodenal glands located?
in the submucosa of the duodenum only
What is the major stimulus for intestinal juice?
the distension or irritation of the intestional mucusa by hypertonic or acidic chyme
NAME
the production of this is stimulated by the distension or irritation of the intestional mucusoa by hypertonic or acidic chyme
intestinonla juice
What are (2)organs associated w the small intestines?
(1)liver (2)gallbladder
What is the digestive function of the liver?
is to produce bile for export to duodenum
NAME
the digestive function of this organ is to produce bile for export to the duodenum
the liver
NAME
this is fat emulsifer
bile
How is bile fat emulsifer?
by it breaks up fats into tiny particles so that they are more accessible to digestive enzymes
What is the function of the gallbladder?
is a storage organ for bile
NAME
is a storage organ for bile
gallbladder
What is the largest gland in the body?
liver
The liver is the (1) gland in the body
largest
Where is the liver is located?
under diaphragm
WHat are four primary lobes of the liver?
(1)right lobe (2)left lobe (3)caudate lobe (4)quadrate lobe
NAME
this has four primary lones: right lobe, left lobe, caudate lobe, and quadrate lobe
lobes of the liver
Bile leaves the liver through the (1)
several bile ducts
How does bile leave the liver?
through several bile ducts
What is the common hepatic duct?
is several small bile ducts fused together
NAME
refers to several small bile ducts that are fused together
common hepatic duct
(1) are also called Kupffer cells
hepatic macrophages
Hepatic macrophages are also called (1)
Kupffer cells
What are Kupffer cells?
remove debris such as bacteria and worn out blood cells from the blood as it flows past
NAME
this removes debris such as bacteria and worn out blood cells from the blood as it flows past
Kupffer cells
What can hepatocytes do?
(1)produce bile (2)process the bloodborne nutrients in various ways (3)store fat-soluble vitamins (4)play important roles in detoxification such as riding the blood of amonia
NAME
these cells can produce bile, process the bloodborne nutrients in various ways, store fat soluble vitamins, and play important roles in detoxification such as riding the blood of amonia
hepatocytes
Secreted bile flows through tiny canals called (1)
bile canaliculi
Secreted (1) flows through tiny canals called bile canaliculi
bile
WHat is hepatitis?
is the inflammation of the liver
NAME
is the inflammation of the liver
hepatitis
What is the most often cause of hepatitis?
viral infections
(1) and (2) are linked to chronic and liver cirrhosis
(1)HV B (2)HVC
HV B and HV C are linked to (10
chronic and liver cirrhosis
(1) is mutated virus that needs HVB to be infectious
HV D
HV D is a mutated virus that needs (1) to be infectious
HV B
40% of the hepatic cases are due to (1), which is transmited via blood transfusions, contaminatd needles, and sexual contact
HVB
How is HV B spread? (3)
(1)blood tranfusions (2)contaminated needles (3)sexual contact
What is HV A?
typically found in day care areas that are not clean (2)can be transmitted through contaminated food, raw shellfish, water and by the oral fecel route
NAME
this is accounts for 30% of cases, is frequently observed in day centers, and can be transmited through contaminated food, raw shellfish, water, and by the oral fecal route
HV A
What is HV E?
it causes waterborn epidemics largely in developing countries and is a major cause of the death in pregant women
NAME
this causes waterborn epidemics largely in developing countries and is a major cause of the death in the pregrant women
HV E
What are some non-viral causes of hepatitis?
include drug toxicity and wild mushroom poisining
NAME
this can be caused by drug toxicity and wild mushroom poisining but normally is caused by a viral infection
non-viral causes
What is cirrhois?
is the chronic inflammation of the liver
nAME
is the chronic inflammation of the liver
cirrhois
What causes cirrhois?
chronic alchololism and severe chronic hepatitis
NAME
this can be caused by chronic alcholosim and severe chronic hepatitis
cirrhois
What happens to chronic alcholics?
the alcholol poisned or damaged hepatocytes regenerate , but the liver's connective scar tissue regenerates faster. As a result, the liver becomes fatty and fibrous and its actitivty is depressed
What is causes portal hypertension?
it happens as scar tissue shrinks, it obstructs blood flow through out the hepatic portal system
NAME
this is caused when scar tissue shrinks, and it obstructs blood flow through out the hepatic portal system
portal hypertensions
What is bile?
is a yellow-green alkaline solution containing bile salts, bile pigments,, cholestral, neutral fats, phospholipids, and a variety of electrocytes
NAME
is a yellow-green alkaline solution containing bile salts, bile pigments, cholestral, neutral fats, phospholipids, and a variety of electrocytes
bile
What are the only parts of bile that aid in the digstive process? (2)
(1)bile salts (2)phospholipids
Bile salts and phospholipids are the only parts of bile that (1)
aid in the digestive process
What is the primary role of bile salts?
to emulsify fat
NAME
thier primary role is to emulsify fat
bile salts
What does emulsify fats mean?
to distribute them throughout the watery intestinal contents
NAME
this means to distribute them them throughout the watery intestinal contents
emulsify fats
What can bile salts do other than emulsify fats? (2)
facilitate fat and cholestral absorption and help solubilze cholestral
NAME
these faciliate fat and cholestral absorption and help solubilze cholestral
bile salts
T or F
bile salts leave the body through the feces
false
Do bile salts leave the body through the feces?
no they are recycled
What is enteroheptic circulation?
refers to the recycling of bile salts
NAME
refers to the recycling of bile salts
enterohepatic circulation
What are happens during the enterohepatic circulation? (2)
(1)bile salts are reabsorbed into the blood by the ileum (2)they are returned to the liver via the hepatic portal blood (3)resecreted in newly formed bile
NAME
during this, bile is reabsorbed by the ileum, returned to the liver via the hepatic portal blood, and then resecreted in newly formed bile
enterohepatic circulation
during enterohepatic circulation, bile salts are reabsorbed into the blood by the (1)
ileum
During the enterohepatic circulation, (1) are reabsorbed into the blood by the ileum
bile salts
During the enterohepatic circulation, bile salts are returned to the liver via the (1) and then resecreted in newly formed bile
hepatic portal blood
What is the cheif bile pigment?
bilirubin
NAME
this is the cheif bile pigment
bilirubin
What is bilirubin?
is a waste product of the heme of hemoglobin formed during the breakdown of worn out erythrocytes
NAME
is a waste product of the heme of the hemeoglobin formed during the breakdown of worn out erythrocytes
bilirubin
What is urobilinogen?
is one of the breakdown products of bilirubin that gives feces its brown color
What gives feces its brown color?
urobilinogen
NAME
this is one of the breakdown products of bilirubin that gives feces its brown color
urobilinogen
What is secretin?
is released by intestinal cells when exposed to fatty chyme which stimulates liver cells to secrete bile
NAME
this is released by intestinal cells when exposed to fatty chyme which stimulates liver cells to secrete bile
secretin
NAME
bile is stored here
gallbladder
NAME
this is a thin-walled green muscular sac that stores bile
gallbladder
T or F
the gallbladder stores bile that is not immediately needed for digestion and concentrates it by absorbing some of its watery and ions
true
When the gallbladers wall contracts, bile is expelled into its duct, the (1)and then flows into the bile duct
cystic
Bile does not usally enter the the small intestine until the (1)
gallbladder contracts
What does CCK stand for?
choleystokinin
When is CCK released?
it is released to the blood when acdic, fatty chyme enters the duodenum
NAME
this is released into the blood when acdic, fatty chyme enters the duodenum
CCK
What are (3) important affects that CCK can have?
(1)cause the gallbladder to contract (2)it stimulates the secretion of pancreatic juice (3)relaxes the hepatopancreatic sphincter so that bile and pancreatic juice can enter the duodenum
NAME
this can cause the gallbladder to contract, stimulate the secretion of pancreatic juice, and relaxes the hepatopancreatic spincter so that bile and pancreatic juice can enter the duodenum
CCK
NAME
these help to keep cholestral cyrstallization forming
bile salts
What causes gallstones?
to much cholestral or to little bile salts
NAME
to much cholestral or too few bile salts can lead to this
gallstones
What does jaundiced refer to?
the yellowing of the skin
NAME
this refers to the yellowing of the skin
jaundiced
NAME
this is a soft, tadpole shaped gland across the abdomen from its tail to its head which is encirlced by the C shaped duodenum
pancreas
What is the digestive function of the pancreas?
it produces enzymes that break down all categories of food stuffs which the pancreas then delviers to the duodenum
NAME
this produces enzymes that break down all catergories of food stuffs which it then delivers tot he duodenum
pancreas
What is pancreatic juice?
is the exocrine product (foodstuff broken down by enzymes)
What is the main pancreatic duct?
is where the pancreatic juice drains from the pancreas to enter the bile duct then the duodenum
NAME
this is where the pancreatic juice drains from the pancreas to enter the bile duct then the duodenum
the main pancreatic duct
Where does the pancreatic juice go once it leaves the pancreas?
the main pancreatic duct to the bile duct to the duodenum
W/in the pancreas are (1) which are clusters of secretory cells
acini
Where are acini found?
in the pancreas
NAME
these cells are full of rough er and ehibit deeply staining zymogen granules
acini
Acini are full of rough er and exhibit deeply staining (1)
zymogen granules
NAME
these glands in the pancreas have alpha and beta cells the produce insulin and glycagon
pancreatic islets
What does the pancreatic juice do?
neutrlizes the acdic environment from the stomach
NAME
this neutrlizes the acdic environment from the stomach
pancreatic juice
What does the pancreatic juice mostly consist of?
water and electrocyltes
NAME
its high pH enable s it to neutralize acid chyme entering the duodenum and provides the optimal environment for activity of intestinal and pancreatic enzymes
pancreatic juice
What prevents the duodenum from digesting its self?
pancreatic proteases
What activates trypsin?
enterokinase
NAME
this is activated by enterokinase
trypsin
what does Trypsin do?
activates carbozypeptidase and chymotrypsin
NAME
this activates carbozypeptidase and chymotrypsin
trypsin
What regulets the secretion of pancreatic juice?
local hormones and the parasympathetic nervous system
What stimulates the release of secretin?
the presence of HCL
NAME
this is stimualted by the presence of HCL
secretin
What does secretin?
targets the duct cells prompting thier release of watery bicarbonate rich pancraetic juice
NAME
this targets the duct cells prompting thier release of watery bicarbonate rich pancreatic juice
secretin
When is CCK release?
in reponse to protiens and fats
NAME
this is released in response to the presence of fat and protiens
CCK
How does CCK infleunce pancreatic secretion?
by stimulating the acini cells to release enzyme rich pancraetic juice
NAME
this can also stimulate the acini cells to release enzyme rich pancreatic juice
CCK
Normally, the amount of HCL produced in the stomach is eaxtly balanced by the (1)
bicarbonate
Normally, the amount of (1)produced in the stomach is exactly balanced by the amount of bicarbonte
HCL
Why does the pH of the venous blood returning to the heart remain relativly unchanged?
bc alkaline blood draining from the stomach is neutralized by the acdic blood draining from the pancreas
bc the alkaline blood draining from the stomach is neutralized by the acdic blood draining from the pancreas this helps to(1)
keep the pH of the venous blood returning to the heart at a constant pH
The alkaling blood draining from the (1) is neutralized by the acdic blood draining from the (2)
(1)stomach (2)pancreas
T or F
the stomach and the small intestines do play a part in ingestion and defecation
false
What are the primary functions of the small intestine? (2)
(1)digestion (2)absorption
NAME
this organs primary functions are digestion and absorption
small intestines
Optimal digestive activty in the small intestnes also depend on a (1)
a slow, measured delivery of chyme into the stomach
Whay does the digestive activty in the small intestine depend on a slow, measured delivery of chyme into the stomach?
bc if large amounts of chyme were rushed into the small intestine, the osmotic water loss from the blood into the intestinal lumen would result in dangerously low blood volume
if (1)the osmotic water loss from the blood into the intestinal lumen would result in dangerously low blood volume
large amount of chyme were rushed into the small intestines
What controls the movement of food into the small intestine?
by the pumping actions of the stomach pylrous
nAME
the pumping actions of the stomach pylrous helps to do this
control the movement of food into the small intestines to prevent the duoduneum from being overwhelemend
What are three features that the large intestine exhbits that are not seen anywhere else? (3)
(1)teniae coli (2)haustra (3)epiplpic apendages
NAME
this organ has three unique features not seen anywhere else: teniae coli, haustra, and the epiplplic apendages
large intestines
What is the teniae coli?
is three bands of smooth muscle found int he large intesine
NAME
this is three bands of smooth muscle found in the large intestine
teniae coli
What are epiploc apendages?
are small fat filled pouches of visceral peritoneum that hang from the surface
nAME
are small fat filled pouches of visceral peritoneum that hang from the surface of the large intestine
epiploc apendages
What are the subdivisions of the large intestine?
(1)cecum (2)appendix (3)colon (4)rectum (5)anal canal
NAME
this organ subdivisions are cecum, appendix, coloin, rectum, and anal canal
large intestine
What is the cecum?
is saclike and is the first part of the large intesine
nAME
this is saclike and is the first part of the large intestine
cecum
NAME
this plays in important part in body immunity and consist of masses of lymphoid tissue and as a part of MALT
vermiform appendix
What is one bad thing about hte appendix?
its twisted structure provides an ideal location for enteric bacteria to accumulate and multiply
NAME
this, its twisted structure provides an ideal location for enteric bacteria to accumulate and muliply
appendix
What is appendicitis?
is the acute inflammation of the appendix
NAME
is the acture inflammation of the appendix
appendicitis
Why is appendicitis most common during adolescence?
bc that is when the entrance to the appednix is the widest
What is the cause of appendixits?
blockage that traps infectious bacteria in its lumen
NAME
this often results from blockage that traps infectious bacteria in its lumen
appendicitis
NAME
this is the last segment of the large intestine
anal canal
What do the internal and external anal sphincter do?
act like purse strings to open and close the anus
NAME (2)
these act like purse strings to open and close the anus
internal and external sphincter
How is the large intestines 4 layers differ from other ograns? (3)
(1)the mucosa is simple epithelieum except in the anal canal (2)the mucosa layer is thicker and the cyrpts are deeper (3)the mucosa of the anal canal has the anal sinuses
NAME
this organs mucosa is simple eptiehlia in the anal canal, it is thicker, has deeper cyrpts, and the mucosa of the anal canal has the anal sinuses
large intestines
What layer of the large intestines is differ?
the mucosa
Why does the mucosa of the anal canal not have simple columnar epithlia?
bc most of the food is absorbed before the large intestine, so there is no cillia, villi, and no cells that secrete digestive enzymes
What does the mucos produced by goblet cells in the large intestine help to do?
eases the passage of feces and protects the intestinal wall from irriating acids and gases released by resident bacteria in the colon
NAME
this helps to ease the passage of feces and protects the intestinal wall from irriating acids and gases released by resident bacteria in the colon
mucus produced by the goblet cells in the large intestine
What are the anual sinuses?
exude mucus when compressed from feces
NAME
this exude mucus when compressed from feces
anual sinuses
What is the pectinate line?
is the horizontal line that parallels the inferior margins of the anal sinuses
NAME
this is the horizontal line that parellels the inferior margins of the anal sinuses
pectinate line
T or F
altough most bacteria entering the cecum are dead, some are still alive and kicking
true
T or F
except for the small amount of digestion of that resdiue by the baceria flora of the large intestine no further breakdown ocurs
true
What does the bacteria flora of the large intestine do?
(1)syntheizes some vitamins such as B and K (2)ferment some of the ingestible carbs
NAME
these syntheize some vitamins such as B and K and ferment some of the ingestible carbs
bacteria flora
What are the primary functions of the large intestine?
(1)propulsive activies that force the fecal material toward the anus and then elimenate them from the body
NAME
this organs main function is propulsive activies that force the fecal material toward the anus and then elimanate it from the body
large intestine
t or f
the large intestine is essential for life
false
What is ilesotomy?
is when the colon is removed bc of cancer and the terminal ileum is brought out to the abdominal wall
NAME
is when the colon is removed bc of cancer and the terminla ileum is brought out to the abdominal wall
ilesotomy
What is ileonal juncture?
a surfically procedure that links the ileum directly to the anal canal
NAME
is a surgically prodecuret that links the ileum directly to the anal canal
ileonal juncture
What is verticula?
small herniations of the mucuosa through the colon walls
NAME
are small herinations of the mucuosa through the colon walls
verticula
Why do verticula form?
if ones deit lack bulk, the colon narrows and its contractions become more powerful and increases the pressure on the walls
NAME
this is caued if ones deit lacks bulk which causing hte colon narrow and its contraction become more powerful and increases the pressure on the walls
verticual form
What is diverticulitis?
is when the diverticoula become inflamed
NAME
is when the diverticoula becomes inflammed
diverticulitis
What is defection reflex?
this is a spinal cord mediated parasympathic reflex that causes the sigmoid colon and the rectum to contract and the anal sphincters to relax
NAME
this is a spinal cord mediated parasympathic reflex that causes the sigmoid colon the rectum to contract and the anal sphincters to relax
defection reflex
What is diarrhea?
watery stools
NAME
these are watery stools
diahrea
What causes diahera?
any condition that rushed food through the large intestine before that organ has had sufficant time to absorb the remaining water
NAME
this is caused by any condition that rushes food through the large intestine before that organ has had sufficant time to absorb the remaining water
diahrea
What is constipation?
is when too much water is absorbed and the stool becomes hard and diffcult to pass
NAME
is when too much water is absorbed and the stool becomes hard and diffuclt to pass
constipation
What is chemical digestion?
is a catabolic process in which large food molecules are broken down to monomers which are small enough to absorbed by the GI tract lining
NAME
is a catabolic process in which large food molecules are broken down to monomer which are small enough to be absorbed by the GI tract lining
chemical digestion
What is the def of hydrolis from a chemical digetion prespective?
the enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecules
NAME
this is the enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecules
hydrolysis
What is hydrolysis?
is the addition of a water molecule to each molecular bond to be broken
NAME
this is the addition of water molecule to each molecular bond to be broken
hydrolysis
What are monosacchrides?
are the monomers of carbs and are absorbed immediatly w/out any further ado
NAME
these are the monomers of carbs and are absorbed immediatly w/out any further ado
monosaccharides
NAME
this are simple sugars
monosaccharides
What are three common monosaccahrides that are common in our diet? (3)
(1)glucose (2)frutose (3)galactose
Glucose, fructose, and glaactose are the (1)
most common monsaccrides in our diet
What is salivary amylase?
starts the break down of starch and disacahrides into olgioasaccharides and disaccharides in the mouth
NAME
this starts the break down of strach and disacahrides into olgioasaccharides and disaccharides in the mouth
salivary amylase
What is pancreatic amylase?
finishes the break down of starch and disacharides into olgioasaccharides and disaccharides in the mouth
NAME
this finished the break down of strach and disachardies into oligoasaccharides and disaccharides in the mouth
pancreatic amylase
Where does salivary amyalse work?
in the mouth
Where does pancreatic amyalse work?
in the small intestines
What does amylase digest?
strach
What do the brush border enzymes in the small intestine do?
further break down oligosaccharides and disaccahrides into monosacrides
NAME
these further break down oligosaccharides and disaccahrides inot monosacrides
the brush border enzymes in the small intestine
What are some brush border enzymes in the small intestine/ (5)
(1)dextrinase (2)glucoamylase (3)maltose (4)sucrase (5)lactase
What do dextrinase and glucoamylase? (2)
act on oligosaccharides to break them down into three simple sugars
NAME (2)
these brush border enzymes act on oliogasaccharides to break them down into three simple sugars
dextrinase and glucoamylase
Draw a diagram that shows how protien digestion ocurs be sure to label the enzymes and where the activity ocurs
p 926
What does pepsin do?
breaks down protiens into large polypeptides in the stomach
NAME
these breaks down protiens into large polypetides in the stomach
pepsin
Where can pepsin be found?
in the stomach glands in the presence of HCL
NAME
this digestive enzyme is found in the stomach glands in the presence of HCL
pepsin
What do the pancreatic enzymes do?
break down large polypeptides into small polypeptides and small peptides
NAME
these break down large polypeptides into small polypeptides and small peptides in the small intestine
pancreatic enzymes
What do the brush broder enzymes do in the small intestine?
break down small polypetides and small peptides into amino acids in the small intestine
NAME
these break down small polypetides and small peptides into amino acids in the small intestine
brush border enyzmes in the small intestine
Where can pancreatic enzymes be found?
small intestine
the monosaccahrides and glactose are absorbed via (1) w (2)
(1)cotransport (2)sodiom ions
Amino acids are absorbed via (1) w (2)
(1)cotransport (2)sodiom ions
How are amino acids absorbed?
w cotransport w sodiom ions
How are monasaccarides glucose and glactose absorbed?
w cotransport w sodiom ions
How is frutose absorbed ?
passes through facilliated difusion
All monosaccrides enter the capillary blood in the villi and are transported to the (1) via the (2)
(1)liver (2)hepatic portal viens
NAME (3)
these are absorbed v cotransport via sodium ions
(1)monosaccrides glucose and galactose (2) amino acids
What are the (3) complex monosacrides?
(1)lactose (2)maltose (3)sucrose
T or F
pepsin cannot work in the stomach bc of the acdic environment
false
Pepsin works in (1)
acdic conditions
What does the carboxypeptidase do?
splits off one amino acid at a time from the polypeptide chain that bears the carboxyl group
NAME
this enzyme splits off one amino acid at a time from the polypetide chain that bears the carboxyl group
carboxypeptidase
Draw a diagram depicting the chemical digestmesion of protiens. be sure to label the enzymes and thier site of action
p 926
How does fat digestion start out/
by unemulsifed fats are emulsifed by the ditergent action of bile salts ducted in from the liver
NAME
this is emulsfied by the ditergent action of bile salts ducted in from the liver
uneumulsifed fats
Unemuslfied fats are emulsifed by the detergent action of (1) ducted in by the liver
bile salts
What does pancreatic lipase do?
breaks down emulsifed fats into monoglyercides and fatty acids, and glyceral and fatty acids in the small intestine
NAME
this breaks down emulsifed fats inot monoglycerides and fatty acids, and glyceral and fatty acids in the small intestine
pancreatic lipase
Where does pancreatic lipase do its job?
in the small intestine
How are nucelic acids absorbed?
active transport via membrane carriers absorbed into the capillary blood in viilli and transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vien
NAME
these are asborbed by active transport via membrane carriers absorbed into the capillary blood in villi and transported to the liver via hepatic portal vien
nucelic acids
NAME
this organ is essentiall the sole site of lipid digetsion
small intestine
NAME
these are fat digesting enzymes
lipases
Fats need speacil treatment w (1) to be digested and absorbed into the watery environment
bile salts
How do bile salts work?
(1)they have both polar and nonpolor regions (2)their nonpolar parts cling to fat molecules and thier polar parts allow them to repel each other and interact with water
NAME
these have polor and nonpolar regions. thier nonpolar regions cling to fat molecules and thier polar regions allow them to repel each other and interact with water
bile salts
the nonpolar regions of bilesalts cling to (1) and thier polar regions allow them to (2)
(1)fat molecules (2)to repel each other and interact with water
Both DNA and RNA are hydrolized by thier to thier nucleodide monomers to(1)
pancratic nucleases
What are pancreatic nucleases?
hydrolize DNA and RNA into thier nucleotide monomers
NAME
these hydrolize DNA and RNA into thier nucleotide monomers
pancreatic nucleases
What is ribonuclease?
breaks down RNA into its monomers
NAME
this breaks down RNA into its monomers
ribonuclease
NAME
this breaks down DNA into its monomers
deoxyribonuclease
What is deoxyribonuclease?
breaks down DNA into its monomers
What are the brush border enzymes, nucleosidaes and phosphatases?
release the free bases, pentose sugars, and phosphate ions of nucleic acid
NAME
these release the free bases, pentose sugars, and phosphate ions of nucleic acid
the brush border enzymes, nucleodidases and phosphatases
(1) of elecotrocytes, and mot of water are absorbed in the small intestines
80%
Most nutrients are absorbed through the (1)
mucosa of the intestinal villi by active transport
Where does nucleic acid digestion ocur in?
the small intestine
Where does fat ingestion ocur in?
the small intestine
Where does protien digestion start?
in the stomach
Where does protien digestion end?
in the small intestine
Where does carb digestion start?
in the mouth
Where does carb digestion end?
in the small intestine
Draw the digestion of lipids, be sure to include the enzymes and thier site of action
p 926
Draw the digestion of nucleic acids

be sure to include the enzymes used and thier site of action
p 926
T or F
whole protiens ar not usually absorbed
true
Why do some babies have food allergies? (3)
bc in rare cases whole protiens can be taken up by endocytosis and release into the opposite side of the epithelia cell (2)this reflects the immaturity of the infants immune system (3)thier immune system "see" the intact protiens as antigenic and mounts an attack
What are micelles?
are collections of fatty elements clustered together w bile salts in such a way that poloar end molecules face the water and nonpolor molecules form the core
NAME
are collections of fatty elements clustered together w bile salts in such a way that polar end molecules face the water and nonpolar molecules face the inner core
micelles
The small intestine absorbs (1) the large intestine absorbs (2)
(1)dietary vitamins (2)vitamins B andK
NAME
this organ absorbs dietary vitamins
small intestine
NAME
this organ absorbs vitamins B and K
the large intestine
(1) of water is absorbed by the small intestine by osmois
95%
What is malabsorption?
is impaired nutrient absorption
NAME
this is impaired nutrient absorption
malabsorption
What can malabsorption result from?
anything that interferes w the delivery of bile or pancreatic juice
NAME
this can be caused by anything that interfers with delivery of pancreatic juice to the small intestine
malaabsorption
What is adult celiac disease?
is a conidtion in which a protien called gluten damages the intestinal villi and reduces the length of the microvilli of the brush border
NAME
this is a conidtion in which a protien called gluten damages the intestinal villi and reduces the length of microvilli of the brush border
celiac disease
adult celiac disease is also called (1)
gluten anteropathy
(1) is also called gluten anteropathy
adult celiac disease
Give a ex of malabsorption
adult celiac disease
adult celiac disase is a ex of (1)
malaabsorption