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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List 2 basic types of movements associated with the muscular layer
mixing movement and propeling movement
what is the peritoneum
the largest serous membrane it covers the abdominal organs and lines the abdominal cavity
define the parietal and visceral layers of the peritoneum
parietal is the outer layer lines the cavity
visceral is inner layer that covers the organs
what is mastication
when the mouth recives food and begins the mechanical breakdown of food by mastication (chewing)
what is bolus
its the food all chewed up with saliva
what is salivary amylase
the enzyme that is secreted in saliva
what are the 3 things that make up the palate
the hard palate (upper jaw)
the soft palate (skeletal muscle)
uvula (projection on free edge of soft palate)
what is the purpose of the uvula
prevents food from going up your nose
what are the 3 things that make up your tongue
lingual frenulum
papillae
hyoid
what is lingual frenulum
connects tongue to floor of the mouth
what is papillae
rough projections on the tongue's surface (taste buds)
what is hyoid
bone that anchors the root of the tongue
what are the 3 salivary gland in the mouth
parotid under and in frt of ears (exocrine)
submandibular beneath the base of tongue
sublingual beneath the front of tongue
what are the functions of the papillae
contains tastebuds and texture helps to grab food for chewing
what is the composition of saliva
99.5% water, salivary amylase-enzyme
lysozyme-attacks bacteria, antibodies-proteins, mucin-glycoprotein
what is peristalsis
wave-like contractions of smooth muscle that moves food through the alimentary canal
what are the 3 stages of swallowing
voluntary stage
pharyngeal stage
esophageal stage
what is the voluntary stage of swallowing
where the tongue forces the bolus to the back of the oral cavity
what is the pharyngeal stage of swallowing
breathing stops as food moves down the pharnyx
what is the esophageal swtage of swallowing
bolus moves down esophagus by peristalsis
what is the swallowing reflex
movement of the uvula and eppiglottis
what is the role of the circular smooth muscle layer in peristalsis
constrict to push food down
what is the role of the longitudinal smooth muscle layer in peristalsis
dialates to receive the food being pushed down
what is the gastroesophageal sphincter
valve like structure located between the stomach and esophagus prevents the stomach contents from backing up into the esophagus
what are mixing waves
gentle rolling of peristalsis in the stomach performing the mechanical digestion of the stomach
what is pepsin
enzyme that begins the chemical breakdown of protein
what are the 4 parts of the stomach
cardia area surrounding superior opening
fundus areaabove and left of the cardia
body large central portion of the stomach
pyloric narrow inferior portion of the stomach
what are rugae
thick folds of mucus membrane (allows the stomach to stretch)
what is the pyloric sphincter
valve like structure between stomach and small intestine
what is the gastric pit
small openings in the mucosa
what is the gastric glands
exocrine gland cells lining the gastric pits
what is gastric juice
mixture of mucus, pepsinogen (inactive form of pepsin) and HCL (hydrocloric acid) all of this located in gastric pits
what is chyme
mixture of bolus and gastric juice
how is the secretion of gastric juice stimulated
stimulated PSN (parasmpathetic Nervous System and the gastrin
How is the secretion of gastric juice inhibited
by the presence of food in the small intestine
what is the main site ofr nutrient absorption
the small intestine
where is mechanical digestion completed
in the small intestine
what is segmentation
localized contraction that brings chyme into contact with the wall of the small intestine
How is chemical digestion done
by pancreatic enzymes and intestinal enzymes and bile completing the breakdown of carbs and begining the breakdown of fats
what are the 3 parts of the small intestine
duodemum 1st part
jejunum middle portion
ileum last and longes portion
what is the mesentery
double layer of peritoneum that secures the small intestine to the post interior abdominal wall
what is the ileocecal spincter
valve like structure between small intestine and large intestine
what is the structure of the small intestinal wall
villi projections of mucous membrane
circular folds permanent ridges in the mucosa
duodemal glands secret and alkaline mucus into the lumen
what is the brus border of the small intestine
itsthe fuzzy appearance of the villi and its also where enzymes are housed and pancreatic enzymes too
what are lacteals
lymphatic capillaries that absorb fat
how do the circular fold and intestinal villi enhance absorption in the small intestine
increase the surface area
what does the large intestine do
absorbs water and electrolytes
forms and stores feces
what is the good bacteria in your colon called and what does it do
intestinal flora completes the chemical breaddown of any molecules that resist the actions of human enzymes like (cellulose)
what are the 4 parts of the large intestine
cecum pouch inferior to the ileum
colon long tube with 4 divisions
rectum region from the sigmoid to the anus
anal canal terminal 1" of the rectum
what arethe 4 divisionsof the colon
1 ascending
2 transverse
3 decending
4 sigmoid
where is the appendix located
attached to the cecum
what is the haustra of the large intestine
series of pouches that line the colon
what is the teniae coli of the large intestine
bands of muscle fibers that esert tension to form the haustra
what is haustral churning
muscular contraction of the haustra that moves the feces
what is mass peristalsis
large wave of contraciton that moves contents from the colon to the rectum
what micronutrients are formed in the large intestine
vitamin k and vitamin B
what is bile and where is it produced
produced in the liver contains bile salts, bile pigmentsk cholesterol and electroytes
what does bile salts do
they breadkown fats and are the only bile substance that aid in digestion
How does bile leave the liver and get into the small intestine
transported from the liver through the right and lelft hepatic ducts that unite into the common hepatic duct to the small intestin
what are the 3 major functions of the liver
carbohydrate metabolism
lipid metabolism
protein metabolism
How does carbohydrate metabolism work
stores glucose as glycogen or breaks down glycogen to form glucose
converts protein and lactic acid to glucose
how does lipid metabolism work
synthesizes lipoproteins, phospho lipids, and cholestrol
converts carbohydrates and protein molecules into fats
how does protein metabolism work
synthesizes plasma proteins and removes nitrogen from protein to form urea (deamination)
converts certain amino acids to form other amino acids
what minerals and vitamins are stored by the liver
iron
vitamin A and D (fat soluable)
and B12
how does the liver aid the spleen in filtering the blood
it removes damaged RBC's thru macrophages
what is the function of the gallbladder
store and concentrate the bile
what are the exocrine products that the pancreas secretes
digestive enzymes
bicarbonate ions (these raise pH)
what is in the pancreatic juice
pancreatic amylase breaks down carbs
trypsin breaks down protein
pancreatic lipase breaks down lipids
what 2 hormones stimulate the release of pancreatiac juice
secretin stimulates release of bicarbonate ion
cholecystokinin releases digestive enzymes
what organ secretes secretin and cholecystokinin hormones
produced by small intestine
what is an ulcer
lesion in mucus membrane due to a bacterial infection
what is gastric reflux disease (GERD)
back up of stomach contents into esophagus
what is hiatal hernia
portion of stomach protrudes into a weakened area of diaphragm
what is jaundice
buildup of bile pigments turn skin yellow
what is hemmorrhoids
enlarged rectal veins caused by anything that causes pressure
what lifesthyle changes can prevent or cure gastric reflux disease
diet non acid food no caffeine no smoking decrease stress
what lifestyle changes can prevent or cure hemorrhoids
eat fiber aids movement of feces and drink alot of water