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29 Cards in this Set

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evolution
the processes that have transformed life on Earth from its earliest forms to the vast diversity that charecterizes it today
natural selection
a population of organisms can change over time as a result of individuals with certain heritable traits leaving more offspring than other individuals
evolutionary adaptations
inherited charecteristics that enhance an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment
natural theology
a philosophy dedicated to discovering the creator's plan by studying nature. everything is made for a particular purpose
taxonomy
branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life
fossils
relics or impressions of organisms from the past, mineralized in rock
sedimentary rocks
formed from the sand and mud that settle to the bottom of seas, lakes and marshes. fossils are in them.
paleontology
developed by Georges Cuvier, study of fossils. deeper the level of stratum, the more dissimilar plants and animals were from modern plants and animals
catastrophism
each boundary between strata corresponded in time to a catastrophe that destoryed many of the species living there at the time
gradualism
profound cahnge is the cumulative product of slow but continuous processes
uniformitarianism
geological processes have not changed throughout earth's history
Lamarck
species could move up the ladders toward greater complexity. evolution responded to "timents interieurs" (felt needs)
LaMarck continues
thought acquired charecteristics were inherited
origin of species hypothesis
over many generations, two populations could become dissimilar enough to be designated separate species
descent with modification
unity in lkife, organisms related because all descended from same, modified in different habitats
observation 1
if all organisms reproduced successfully, the population would increase exponentially
observation 2
populations remain stable in size except for seasonal fluctuations
observation 3
environmental resources are limited, thus more inidividuals than the enivornment can support creates a struggle that means only a fraction of offspring can survive
observation 4&5
no two individuals are exactly alike
much of this variation is heritable
natural selection
1. unequal success in reproduction 2. depends on environment and variability in individual organisms 3. the product is the adaptation of populations of organisms to their environment
artificial selection
the breeding of domesticated plants and animals
population
group of interbreeding individuals belonging to a parituclar species and sharing a common georgraphic area (smallest unit that can evolve)
biogeography
geographical distribution of species
homology
similarity in charecteristics resulting from common ancestors
homologous structures
anatomical signs of evolution
vestigal organs
structures of marginal, if any, importance to the organism. remnants of historical structures that used to be important. represent change in pattern of gene epression in embryonic development
comparative embyology
organisms started off similary.
ontogeny & phylogeny
o-development of individual organism/p- evolutionary history of species. "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny"= overstatement
molecular biology
similar paragraphs of genes and proteins/ can compare amino acids in hemoglobin