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104 Cards in this Set

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The production of one size of spore, which can result in seperate male and female gametophytes or in bisexual gametophytes, depending on species
Producing one type of spore, seen alot in many seedless vascular plants like bryophytes
A backbone-like line of cells with thickened walls surrounding fern sporangia: aids in spore dispersal
A leaf with highly branched vascular system, most common type of leaf in modern plants, including ferns
Descriptive of gametophyte developement in spike mosses, taking place mostly inside the spore wall
Sporangia that produces microspores by meiotic division of microspore mother cells
A sporophyll with microsporangia; common in spike mosses
A female gametophyte produced by a megaspore
A sporangium that produces megaspores
One of the top twigs of a dichotomous branch. According to telome theory, differential growth of telomes gave rise to many anatomical structures of plants, such ass microphylls
An umbrella-like structure covering a fern sorus of a fern leaf
A male gametophyte produced by a microspore
A small, scale-like, non-vascularized flag of green tissue that serves in place of a leaf in some whisk ferns(psilotophytes)
Descriptive of gametophyte developement in most seedless vascular plants and bryophytes, taking place outside the spore wall
Producing the two types of spores: megaspores and microspores
A sporophyll with megasporangia
A small leaf with a single leaf vein; characteristics of modern lycophytes(club mosses, spike mosses, and quillworts)
The coiled immature frond of a fern
Chapter 22
or megaspore mother cell, a diploid cell that undergoes meiosis to produce haploid megaspores
Production of more than one embryo as a result of the presence of multiple pollen tubes; characteristics of some gymnosperms
A megasporangium inside the ovule of a seed plant where the megagametophyte or embryo sac develops
The opening between integuments in ovules where the pollen tube enters
Also called microspore mother cell: Contained in a microsporangium, divides by meiosis to produce microspores
A portion of the embryonic stem located under the cotyledon and above the radicle
A functional unit of simple and complex tissues.
Tissue System
A simple water conducting cell in ferns and conifers that functions much like a sieve-tube member in flowering plants
Sieve Cell
The outer protective covering of a plant, derived from parenchyma cells
Dermal Tissue System
All stems, leaves, and reproductive structures of a plant, usually underground
Shoot System
A tissue that moves sugars and other organic nutrients from the leaves to the rest of the plant
Descriptive of a nonwoody plant, with little or no secondary growth
A nonliving, structural cell with secondary cell walls that are hardened with lingnin.
Sclerenchyma Cell
The single, outer layer of protective dermal tissue formed in a plants first year of growth and in all subsequent new tissue
A meristematic cell that remains within a meristem as a source of new growth
A part of the root and shoot apical meristem that produces the ground tissue system
Ground Meristem
The body of a plant produced by shoot and root apical meristems
Primary Plant Body
A portion of the embryonic plant stem over the cotyledon that develops from the plumule
Leaflets of a compound leaf or frond
An underdeveloped embronyic shoot
A typically herbaceous plant that usually requires two growing seasons to complete its life cycle. It produces flowers and seeds in the second growing season
Develops from a small bulge on the side of a shoot apical meristem, and develops into a leaf
Leaf Primordium
Growth in length of roots and shoots, caused by meristems at the tip, or apex, of each root or shoot
Primary Growth
A combination of several types of tissue adapted as a group to perform particular functions
A bud that forms in the upper angle or axil where the petiole joins the stem; grows to become a new shoot
Axillary Bud
A nucleated cell adjacent to a sieve-tube member that can supply it with proteins
Companion Cell
The process of a seeds sprouting in which the first event is protrusion of the radicle or embryonic root through the seed coat, beginning of active growth of a spore or seed
The contents transported by xylem and phloem
A multicellular structure in phloem that conducts organic nutrients from the leaves to the other parts of the plant
Sieve Tube
A region of cell division that produces the tissues of a primary plant body
Primary Meristem
A section of a stem between attachment site of leaves
A layer outside the cell wall composed of wax and a fatty substance called cutin, which helps limit water loss
A plant that completes its life cycle during a single growing season and then dies
The most common and least specialized type of cell in most plants
Parenchyma Cell
A living, elongated cell that provides flexible support to a plant.
Collenchyma Cell
A carbohydrate molecule formed around the sieve plate by a damaged sieve-tube member
Growth in thickness produced by lateral meristems, common in conifers and dicots
Secondary Growth
Ground tissue formed inside vascular tissue
The first plant hormone discovered; produced in or near apical meristems suppresses the growth of axillary buds; stimulates growth of plant cells
The loss of water through the pores in leaves, which pull water and mineral nutrients up from the roots to the leaves
Root and shoot apical meristem that produces xylem and phloem
Ground tissue formed between dermal and vascular tissue
Root and shoot apical meristem that produces a plants epidermis
Any individual stem and its leaves, as well as any reproductive structures that extend from the stem, like flowers
A meristem at the tip of a shoot or root, the site of primary growth
Apical Meristem
A thin region in the secondary cell wall of a tracheid that allows water and minerals to flow one tracheid to another
A sporophyte megaphyll(leaf)of a fern. Site of spore production
A feature of a sieve-tube member, consisting of cell walls with membrane-lined pores
Sieve Plate
A continuous water conducting tube
A cylindrical, slightly conical, single layer of meristematic cells that cause thickening of stems and roots in woody plants
Lateral Meristem
Consists of all roots, usually underground
Root System
A tissue composed of one type of cell
Simple Tissue
A cubical or spherical sclerenchyma cell. commonly found in nutshells and fruit pits
Region of meristematic cells that produce new growth by cell division
An unspecialized cell that can divide indefinitely to produce new cells
Meristematic Cell
(true dicot) One of a group of dicots that belong to a common group in evolution and structure
Flowering plants with two cotyledons; for example beans, peas, sunflowers, roses, and oak trees
A large, water conducting cell in the xylem of most flowering plants; transports water and minerals more rapidly than tracheid cells
Vessel Element
A group of identical cells with a common function
The tip of a root or shoot
The processes by which an unspecialized cell develops into a specialized cell
A flowering plant with one cotyledon; for example orchids, lilies, palms, onions, and grasses
A hairlike extension of a dermal cell; for example the long hairs that extend from leaves and from cotton seeds
A prominent embryonic root in a developing plant embryo
A long, nonliving cell with tapered ends, commonly found in the xylem of all vascular plants
A daughter cell that is pushed out of the meristem and either divides again or begins elongation and differentation. Its sister cells remain as an initial
Group of cells of several cell types
Complex Tissue
Swollen or enlarged as a result of being full of water
A thin, stemlike structure that attaches leaf to stem at a node
An organ that anchors a plant in soil and absorbs water and minerals
A plant that grows for many years;may be woody or herbaceous
A living cell in the phloem of flowering plants, stacked end to end to form sieve tubes. Non nucleated at maturity
Sieve Tube Member
An extension of the petiole attaching fern pinnae to there frond
The point on a stem where a leaf is attached
A fundemental tissue system, consists of all tissues other than the vascular tissue system. Its cells carry out photosynthesis and store nutrients
Ground Tissue System
An organic compound in multicellular organisms that causes developemental or growth responses in target cells
The suppression of axillary bud growth by auxin produced by a terminal bud
Apical Dominance
The first leaf or leaves of a developing plant embryo; stores food for the germinating seed and may be thickened or fleshly
A nitrogen containing carbohydrate similar in structure to cellulose that makes up the cell walls of fungi and exoskeletons of anthropods such as insects
A protective tissue replacing the epidermis of stems and roots of plants that live more than one year. Commonly found in woody plants
A continuous system of tissues that conducts water, minerals, and food; consists of xylem and phloem
Vascular Tissue System
Any part of a plant that supports leaves or reproductive structures
A specialized trichome near the tip of a root, responsible for water and mineral absorption for a plant
Root Hair
The tissue that brings water and mineral nutrients from the roots to the rest of the plant
The main photosynthetic organ of modern plants
Storage tissue surrounding the embryo in flowering plants;provides nourishment to the developing embryo