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104 Cards in this Set

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The production of one size of spore, which can result in seperate male and female gametophytes or in bisexual gametophytes, depending on species
Homospory
Producing one type of spore, seen alot in many seedless vascular plants like bryophytes
Homosporous
A backbone-like line of cells with thickened walls surrounding fern sporangia: aids in spore dispersal
Annulus
A leaf with highly branched vascular system, most common type of leaf in modern plants, including ferns
Megaphyll
Descriptive of gametophyte developement in spike mosses, taking place mostly inside the spore wall
Endosporic
Sporangia that produces microspores by meiotic division of microspore mother cells
Microsporangia
A sporophyll with microsporangia; common in spike mosses
Microsporophyll
A female gametophyte produced by a megaspore
Megagametophyte
A sporangium that produces megaspores
Megasporangia
One of the top twigs of a dichotomous branch. According to telome theory, differential growth of telomes gave rise to many anatomical structures of plants, such ass microphylls
Telome
An umbrella-like structure covering a fern sorus of a fern leaf
Indusium
A male gametophyte produced by a microspore
Microgametophyte
A small, scale-like, non-vascularized flag of green tissue that serves in place of a leaf in some whisk ferns(psilotophytes)
Enation
Descriptive of gametophyte developement in most seedless vascular plants and bryophytes, taking place outside the spore wall
Exosporic
Producing the two types of spores: megaspores and microspores
Heterosporous
A sporophyll with megasporangia
Megasporophyll
A small leaf with a single leaf vein; characteristics of modern lycophytes(club mosses, spike mosses, and quillworts)
Microphyll
The coiled immature frond of a fern
Fiddlehead
Chapter 22
or megaspore mother cell, a diploid cell that undergoes meiosis to produce haploid megaspores
Megasporocyte
Production of more than one embryo as a result of the presence of multiple pollen tubes; characteristics of some gymnosperms
Polyembrony
A megasporangium inside the ovule of a seed plant where the megagametophyte or embryo sac develops
Nucellus
The opening between integuments in ovules where the pollen tube enters
Micropyle
Also called microspore mother cell: Contained in a microsporangium, divides by meiosis to produce microspores
Microsporocyte
A portion of the embryonic stem located under the cotyledon and above the radicle
Hypocotyl
A functional unit of simple and complex tissues.
Tissue System
A simple water conducting cell in ferns and conifers that functions much like a sieve-tube member in flowering plants
Sieve Cell
The outer protective covering of a plant, derived from parenchyma cells
Dermal Tissue System
All stems, leaves, and reproductive structures of a plant, usually underground
Shoot System
A tissue that moves sugars and other organic nutrients from the leaves to the rest of the plant
Phloem
Descriptive of a nonwoody plant, with little or no secondary growth
Herbaceous
A nonliving, structural cell with secondary cell walls that are hardened with lingnin.
Sclerenchyma Cell
The single, outer layer of protective dermal tissue formed in a plants first year of growth and in all subsequent new tissue
Epidermis
A meristematic cell that remains within a meristem as a source of new growth
Initial
A part of the root and shoot apical meristem that produces the ground tissue system
Ground Meristem
The body of a plant produced by shoot and root apical meristems
Primary Plant Body
A portion of the embryonic plant stem over the cotyledon that develops from the plumule
Epicotyl
Leaflets of a compound leaf or frond
Pinnae
An underdeveloped embronyic shoot
Plumule
A typically herbaceous plant that usually requires two growing seasons to complete its life cycle. It produces flowers and seeds in the second growing season
Biennial
Develops from a small bulge on the side of a shoot apical meristem, and develops into a leaf
Leaf Primordium
Growth in length of roots and shoots, caused by meristems at the tip, or apex, of each root or shoot
Primary Growth
A combination of several types of tissue adapted as a group to perform particular functions
Organ
A bud that forms in the upper angle or axil where the petiole joins the stem; grows to become a new shoot
Axillary Bud
A nucleated cell adjacent to a sieve-tube member that can supply it with proteins
Companion Cell
The process of a seeds sprouting in which the first event is protrusion of the radicle or embryonic root through the seed coat, beginning of active growth of a spore or seed
Germination
The contents transported by xylem and phloem
Sap
A multicellular structure in phloem that conducts organic nutrients from the leaves to the other parts of the plant
Sieve Tube
A region of cell division that produces the tissues of a primary plant body
Primary Meristem
A section of a stem between attachment site of leaves
Internode
A layer outside the cell wall composed of wax and a fatty substance called cutin, which helps limit water loss
Cuticle
A plant that completes its life cycle during a single growing season and then dies
Annual
The most common and least specialized type of cell in most plants
Parenchyma Cell
A living, elongated cell that provides flexible support to a plant.
Collenchyma Cell
A carbohydrate molecule formed around the sieve plate by a damaged sieve-tube member
Callose
Growth in thickness produced by lateral meristems, common in conifers and dicots
Secondary Growth
Ground tissue formed inside vascular tissue
Pith
The first plant hormone discovered; produced in or near apical meristems suppresses the growth of axillary buds; stimulates growth of plant cells
Auxin
The loss of water through the pores in leaves, which pull water and mineral nutrients up from the roots to the leaves
Transpiration
Root and shoot apical meristem that produces xylem and phloem
Procambium
Ground tissue formed between dermal and vascular tissue
Cortex
Root and shoot apical meristem that produces a plants epidermis
Protoderm
Any individual stem and its leaves, as well as any reproductive structures that extend from the stem, like flowers
Shoot
A meristem at the tip of a shoot or root, the site of primary growth
Apical Meristem
A thin region in the secondary cell wall of a tracheid that allows water and minerals to flow one tracheid to another
Pit
A sporophyte megaphyll(leaf)of a fern. Site of spore production
Frond
A feature of a sieve-tube member, consisting of cell walls with membrane-lined pores
Sieve Plate
A continuous water conducting tube
Vessel
A cylindrical, slightly conical, single layer of meristematic cells that cause thickening of stems and roots in woody plants
Lateral Meristem
Consists of all roots, usually underground
Root System
A tissue composed of one type of cell
Simple Tissue
A cubical or spherical sclerenchyma cell. commonly found in nutshells and fruit pits
Sclereid
Region of meristematic cells that produce new growth by cell division
Meristem
An unspecialized cell that can divide indefinitely to produce new cells
Meristematic Cell
(true dicot) One of a group of dicots that belong to a common group in evolution and structure
Eudicot
Flowering plants with two cotyledons; for example beans, peas, sunflowers, roses, and oak trees
Dicot
A large, water conducting cell in the xylem of most flowering plants; transports water and minerals more rapidly than tracheid cells
Vessel Element
A group of identical cells with a common function
Tissue
The tip of a root or shoot
Apex
The processes by which an unspecialized cell develops into a specialized cell
Differentation
A flowering plant with one cotyledon; for example orchids, lilies, palms, onions, and grasses
Monocot
A hairlike extension of a dermal cell; for example the long hairs that extend from leaves and from cotton seeds
Trichome
A prominent embryonic root in a developing plant embryo
Radicle
A long, nonliving cell with tapered ends, commonly found in the xylem of all vascular plants
Tracheid
A daughter cell that is pushed out of the meristem and either divides again or begins elongation and differentation. Its sister cells remain as an initial
Derivative
Group of cells of several cell types
Complex Tissue
Swollen or enlarged as a result of being full of water
Turgid
A thin, stemlike structure that attaches leaf to stem at a node
Petiole
An organ that anchors a plant in soil and absorbs water and minerals
Root
A plant that grows for many years;may be woody or herbaceous
Perennial
A living cell in the phloem of flowering plants, stacked end to end to form sieve tubes. Non nucleated at maturity
Sieve Tube Member
An extension of the petiole attaching fern pinnae to there frond
Rachis
The point on a stem where a leaf is attached
Node
A fundemental tissue system, consists of all tissues other than the vascular tissue system. Its cells carry out photosynthesis and store nutrients
Ground Tissue System
An organic compound in multicellular organisms that causes developemental or growth responses in target cells
Hormone
The suppression of axillary bud growth by auxin produced by a terminal bud
Apical Dominance
The first leaf or leaves of a developing plant embryo; stores food for the germinating seed and may be thickened or fleshly
Cotyledon
A nitrogen containing carbohydrate similar in structure to cellulose that makes up the cell walls of fungi and exoskeletons of anthropods such as insects
Chitin
A protective tissue replacing the epidermis of stems and roots of plants that live more than one year. Commonly found in woody plants
Periderm
A continuous system of tissues that conducts water, minerals, and food; consists of xylem and phloem
Vascular Tissue System
Any part of a plant that supports leaves or reproductive structures
Stem
A specialized trichome near the tip of a root, responsible for water and mineral absorption for a plant
Root Hair
The tissue that brings water and mineral nutrients from the roots to the rest of the plant
Xylem
The main photosynthetic organ of modern plants
Leaf
Storage tissue surrounding the embryo in flowering plants;provides nourishment to the developing embryo
Endosperm