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27 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
when LH stimulates thecal cells what happens?
cholesterol is converted to androgen
what happens when FSH stimulates granulosa cells?
androgens are converted to estrogen
what does estrogen that remains in the follicle do?
it contributes to antral formation
what is inhibin?
it is secreted by follicular cells and feeds back to hypothalamus in a negative way and also causes a decrease in FSH
what do Leydig cells do?
secrete T
Where is sperm made?
in the seminiferous tubules
what are the nonreproductive effects of T?
signals protein anabolism, bone growth at puberty followed by closure of epipyseal plates
what is a spermatogonium?
an undifferentiated primordial germ cell (diploid)
what is a spermatozoon?
It is a differentiated haploid cell which fertilizes eggs
what are Sertoli cells and where are they found?
they are found within the wall of seminiferous tubules, selectively transport materials into lumen of tubules, tight junctions between Serotli cells form blood testes barrier, provide nourishment of sperm cells, phagocytoze cytoplasm extruded during remodeling, secrete seminiferous tubule fluid into lumens of tubules, secrete androgen- binding protein, maintaining high level of T in lumen, release inhibin
In males what does FSH act on?
Sertoli cells, usual in promoting spermatogenesis and secretes inhibin
in males what does LH work on?
LH works on Leydig cells causes release of T
why is Estrogen important for males?
important for spermatogenesis and normal sexuality, a small amt is produced by adrenal cortex, and portion of T secreted by testes is converted to estrogen by aromatase
what is the purpose of accessory glands in males:
secrete fluid into tract for sperm viability and motility
what is the function of the epididymis?
attached to rear of penis, exict rt from testis to ductus deferens, sperm cells gain ability to move and fertilize, epididymis concentrates sperm as they mature
what is the function of the ductus deferens?
passes from scrotal sac up through inguinal canal into abdomen, storage site for concentrated sperm
what is semen composed of?
sex gland secretions, sperm, mucus
what is the function of seminal vesicles:
supply fructose to nourish ejaculated sperm, secrete prostaglandins, which stimulate smooth muscle contraction, helping sperm move, provide bulk of semen, provide precursors (fibrogen) for clotting of semen
what is the function of prostate gland?
secretes alkaline fluid that neutralizes acidic vaginal secretions, provides clotting enzymes and fibronolysin (break down clots)
what is the function of the bulburethral glands?
secrete mucus for lubrication during intercourse, both empty into urethra just before it enters the penis
what are the functions of prostaglandins?
promote sperm transport
promote bronchodilation
increase renal blood flow
inhibit hydrocholoric acid secretion in stomach
enhance cortisol secretion
cause bursting of follicle so ovulation occurs
where does fertilization normally occur?
in oviduct, in upper third ("ampulla")
what aids sperm migration in female tract?
- contractions of myometrium (smooth muscle layer) of uterus
- antiperistaltic contractions of the oviduct (upward contractions of oviduct)
- cervical mucus changes
what is allurin?
it is released by the ovum and helps bring sperm to egg
where does an ectopic pregnancy occur?
pregnancy in the abdomen, rather than the uterus
what 2 layers must a sperm pass through in order to fertilize an ovum?
corona radiata, and zona pellucida
what is fertilin?
sperm protein that binds to integrin