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59 Cards in this Set

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karotype
visual display of chromosomes arranged by size, shape and banding, the last pair 23 tells what sex
down syndrome
trisomy 21, extra 21st
poly-x
female with more than 2 x's. tall and thin and with delayed speech
klinefelter syndrome
male was 2+ x's. female characteristics
jacob syndrome
extra y, tall, acne, speech and reading problems
turner syndrome
individual has only an x-no pubery or menstration
nondisjunction during meiosis 1
both members of a homologous pair go to the same daugher cell
nondisjunction during meiosis 2
sister chromosomes fail to separate and both daughter chromosomes go to the same gamete
williams syndrome
deletion of portion of 7- pixie
cri du chat syndrome
deletion of portion 5- malformed larynx
inv dup 15 syndrome
portion of 15 duplicated, autism, curved spine...
translocations
exchange of chromosomal segments b/t 2 different chromosomes, usually no symptoms or abnormalities
alagille syndrome
portion of 2 and 20 are translocated, distinctive facial appearance
inversion
segment of chromosome is rotated 180 so the alleles are in the opposite order
autosomal recessive
can have unaffected parents, must get allele from both parents in order to have it
autosomal dominant
at least one parent is affected, child can be unaffected
autosomal recessive disorders
tay sachs, cystic fibrosis, phenlketonuria, sickle-cell
autosomal dominant disorder
marfan, neurofibromatosis, huntington disease
connective tissue
binds organs, provides support and protection, produces red blood cells
loose fibrous connective tissue
supports epithelium and many internal organs, allows lungs, arteries and bladder to expand
dense fibrous connective tissue
tightly packed collagen fibers, found in tendons and ligaments
adipose tissue
fat storage and insulation
reticular connective tissue
supports meshwork of lymphatic system...nodes, spleen, thymus, bone marrow
matrix of blood
plasma
blood transports...
nutrients, oxygen and wastes
epithelial tissue
tightly packed cells forming a continuous layer that protect, secrete, absorbe, filter and excrete
simple squamous epithelial
lines blood vessels and air sacs of lungs,
protects, filters and diffuses
simple cubodial epithelium
lines kidney tubules and surface of ovaries
protects, secretes, absorbs
simple columnar epithelium
lining of hte intestine and uterus
protects, secretes, absorbs
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
lining of respiratory tract, protects, secretes, moves mucous
epidermis
stratified squamous epithelium
dermis
collagena dn elastic fibers, beneath epidermis
subcuteaneous lyaer
loose connective tissue and adipose tissue
each nucleotide contains...
a nitrogen-containing base
RNA
single stranded, uracil instead of thymine
messenger, mRNA
carries genetic info from DNA to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm
tRNA
transfers amino acids to the ribosomes where amino acids are joined, one type of tRNA for each type of amino acid
PCR
polymerase chain reaction-can create millions of copies of DNA segment very quickly, can be used for fingerprinting
malignancy
when metastasis establishes new tumors distant fromt eh primary tumor
saliva
contains bicarbonate and salivary amylase that begin digestion of startch
phraynx
back of the mouth and nose where both food and air cna pass
peristalsis
rhythmic contractions used to conduct bolus
gastric juice contains:
pepsin (digest protein), hydrochloric acid, and mucus
pyloric sphincter
seperates the stomach and small intestine
small intestine
absorbs nutrients for cardiovascular and lymphatic system. bile from live/gallbladder and pancreatic juice dissolve fat and balance out the acidity of chyme
function of large intestine
absorbs water, salts and some vitamins, bacteria here help to break down indigestible material
peritonitis
if appendix rupturesor the large intestine has a hole in it
function of pancreas
digests carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
islets of langerhans
in pancreas, cell clusters that produce hormones (insulin and glucagon)
liver
makes bile, cleans blood
cirrhosis
liver damage
ascites
fluid in the peritoneal cavity
gallbladder
stores bile, helps w/ digestion of fat
gout
too many urea crystals in the blood
function of kidneys
excrete metabolic waste, maintain salt/water balance of blood, maintain acid-base balance of the blood, hormonal function
three regions of hte kidneys
renal cortex, renal medulla, renal pelvis
nephrons
make of glomerulus (in Bowman's capsule) and renal tubule
symptoms of kidney disease
changes in urination, edema, fatigue, itchy, metallic tast, nausea and vomiting, shortness of breath, feelin cold/or dizzy/can't concentrate, leg/flank pain
kidney stones
often made up calcium