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72 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
anabolism
process of building up complex materials (proteins) from simple materials
catabolism
process of breaking down complex materials (foods) to form simpler substances and release energy
cell membrane
structure surrounding and protecting the cell. It determines what enters and leaves the cell
chromosomes
rod-shaped structures in the nucleus that contain regions of DNA called genes. There are 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) in every cell except for the egg and sperm cells, which only contain only 23 individual, unpaired chromosomes
cytoplasm
all the material that is outside the nucleus and yet contained within the cell membrane
DNA
chemical found within each chromosome. Arranged like a sequence of recipes in code, it directs the activities of the cell
endoplasmic reticulum
structure (canals) within the cytoplasm. Site in which large proteins are made from small protein pieces. Ribosomes are found on the endoplasmic reticulum
genes
regions of DNA within each chromosome
karyotype
picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. The chromosomes are arranged in numerical order to determine their number and structure
metabolism
the total of the chemical processes in a cell. it includes both catabolism and anabolism
mitochondria
structures in the cytoplasm in which foods are burned to release energy
nucleus
control center of the cell. It contains chromosomes and directs the activities of the cell
adipose tissue
collection of fat cells
cartilage
flexible connective tissue attached to bones at joints. For example, it surrounds the trachea and forms part of the external ear and nose
epithelial cell
skin cells that cover the external body surface and line the internal surfaces of organs
histologist
specialist in the study of tissues
larynx
voice box; located at the upper part of the trachea
pharynx
throat. The pharynx is the common passageway for food (from the mouth going to the esophagus) and air (from the nose to the trachea)
pituitary gland
endocrine gland at the base of the brain
thyroid gland
endocrine gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck
trachea
windpipe (tube leading from the throat to the bronchial tubes)
ureter
one of two tubes, each leading from a single kidney to the urinary bladder. Spelling clue: Ureter has two e's and there are two of them
urethra
tube from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. Spelling clue: Urethra has one e and there is only one urethra
uterus
the womb. The organ that holds the embryo and fetus as it develops
viscera
internal organs
abdominal cavity
space below the chest containing organs such as the liver, stomach, gallbladder, and intestines; also called the abdomen
cranial cavity
space in the head containing the brain and surrounded by the skull. Cranial means pertaining to the skull
diaphragm
muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities
dorsal (posterior)
pertaining to the back
mediastinum
centrally located space between the lungs
pelvic cavity
space below the abdomen containing portions of the intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs. Pelvic means pertaining to the hip bone, which surrounds the pelvic cavity
peritoneum
membrane surrounding the organs in the abdomen
pleura
a double-layered membrane surrounding each lung
pleural cavity
space between the pleural membranes and surrounding each lung
spinal cavity
space within the spinal column (backbones) and containing the spinal cord. Also called the spinal cord
thoracic cavity
space in the chest containing the heart, lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, esphagus, and other organs
ventral (anterior)
pertaining to the front
hypochondriac
upper right and left regions beneath the ribs
epigastric
upper middle region above the stomach
lumbar
middle right and left regions near the waist
umbilical
central region near the naval
inguinal
lower right and left regions near the groin. Also called iliac regions
hypogastric
lower middle region below the umbilical region
RUQ
contains the liver (right lobe), gallbladder, part of the pancreas, parts of the small and large intestines
LUQ
contains the liver (left lobe), stomach, spleen, part of the pancreas, parts of the small and large intestines
RLQ
contains parts of the small and large intestines, right ovary, right fallopian tube, appendix, right ureter
LLQ
contains parts of the small and large intestines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, left ureter
cervical
neck region (C1-C7)
thoracic
chest region (T1-T12)
lumbar
loin (waist) region (L1-L5)
sacral
region of the sacrum (S1-S5)
coccygeal
region of the coccyx (tailbone)
vertebra
a single backbone
vertebrae
backbones
spinal column
bone tissue surrounding the spinal cavity
spinal cord
nervous tissue within the spinal cavity
disk (disc)
a pad of cartilage between vertebrae
anterior (ventral)
front side of the body
deep
away from the surface
distal
far from the point of attachment to the trunk or far from the beginnning of a structure
frontal (coronal) plane
vertical plane dividing the body or structure into anterior and posterior portions
inferior (caudal)
below another structure
lateral
pertaining to the side
medial
pertaining to the middle or near the medial plane of the body
posterior (dorsal)
back side of the body
prone
lying on the belly (face down, palm down)
proximal
near the point of attachment to the trunk or near the beginning of a structure
sagittal (lateral) plane
lengthwise, vertical plane dividing the body or structure into right and left sides. From the Latin sagitta, meaning arrow. As an arrow is shot from a bow it enters the body in the sagittal plane, dividing right from left. The midsagittal plane divides the body into right and left halves
superficial
on the surface
superior (cephalic)
above another structure
supine
lying on the back (face up, palm up)
transverse (cross-sectional or axial) plane
horizontal plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions