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68 Cards in this Set

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Anabolism
Process of building up complex materials (protein) from simple materials.
Catabolism
process of breaking down complex materials (foods) to form simple substances and release energy.
Cell membrane
Structure surrounding and protecting the cell. It determines what enters and leaves the cell.
Chromosomes
Rod-shaped structures in the nucleus that contain regions of DNA call genes. There are 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) in every cell except for the egg and sperm cells, which contain only 23 individual, unpaired chromosomes.
Cytoplasm
All the material that is outside the nucleus and yet contained within the cell membrane.
DNA
Chemical found within each chromosome. Arranged like a sequence of recipes in code, it directs the activities of the cell.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Structure (canals) within the cytoplasm. Site in which large proteins are made from smaller protein pieces. Ribosomes are found on this.
Genes
Regions of DNA within each chromosome.
Karyotype
Picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. The chromosomes are arranged in numerical order to determine their number and structure.
Metabolism
The total of the chemical process in a cell. It includes both catabolism and anabolism.
Mitochondria
Structures in the cytoplasm in which foods are burned to release energy.
Nucleus
Control center of the cell. It contains chromosomes and directs the activities of the cell.
Digestive System
mouth, pharynx (throat), esophagus, stomach, intestines (small and large), liver, gallbladder, pancreas
Urinary or Excretory System
kidneys, ureters (tubes from the kidney to the urinary bladder), urinary bladder, urethra (tube from the bladder to the outside of the body)
Respiratory System
nose, pharynx, larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe), bronchial tubes, lungs
Female Reproductive System
ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus (womb), vagina, mammary glands
Male Reproductive System
testes and associated tubes, urethra, penis, prostate gland
Endocrine System
thyroid gland (in the neck), pituitary gland (at the base of the brain), sex glands (ovaries and testes), adrenal glands, pancreas (islets of Langerhans), parathyroid glands
Circulatory System
heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries), lymphatic vessels and nodes, spleen, thymus gland
Musculoskeletal System
muscles, bones and joints
Skin and Sense Organs
skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous (oil) glands, eye, ear, nose, and tongue
Adipose Tissue
Collection of fat cells
Cartilage
Flexible connective tissue attached to bones at joints
Epithelial Cell
Skin cell that cover the external body surface and line the internal surfaces of organs
Histologist
Specialist in the study of tissues.
Larynx
Voice box; located at the upper part of the trachea
Pharynx
Throat. This is the common passageway for food (from the mouth going to the esophagus) and air (from the nose to the trachea)
Pituitary Gland
Endocrine gland at the base of the brain
Thryoid Gland
Endocrine gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck
Ureter
One of two tubes, each leading from a single kidney to the urinary bladder
Urethra
Tube from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
Uterus
The womb. The organ that holds the embryo and fetus as it develops
Viscera
Internal organs; singluar: viscus
Cranial Cavity
Brain, pituitary gland
Thoracic Cavity
Lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchial tubes, thymus gland, aorta (large artery)
Pleura Cavity
Space surrounding each lung. A double-folded membrane, or pleura, lines the cavity. If it becomes inflamed, the cavity can be filled with fluid
Mediastinum
Part of Thoracic cavity; centrally located area outside of and between the lungs. It contains the heart, aorta, trachea, esophagus, thymus gland, bronchial tubes, and many lymph nodes
Abdominal Cavity
Stomach, small and large intestines, spleen, pancreas, liver and gallbladder
Pelvic Cavity
Portions of the small and large intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, urethra, and ureters; uterus and vagina in a female
Spinal Cavity
Nerves of the spinal cord
Diaphragm
Muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities
Dorsal (posterior)
Pertaining to the back
Peritoneum
Membrane surrounding the organs in the abdomen
Ventral (anterior)
Pertaining to the front
Cranial
Pertaining to the skull
Pelvic
Pertaining to the hip bone
Diaphragm
Muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities
Dorsal (posterior)
Pertaining to the back
Peritoneum
Membrane surrounding the organs in the abdomen
Ventral (anterior)
Pertaining to the front
Cranial
Pertaining to the skull
Pelvic
Pertaining to the hip bone
Anterior (ventral)
Front side of the body
Deep
Away from the surface
Distal
Far from the point of attachment to the truck or far from the beginning of a structure
Frontal (coronal) plane
Vertical plane dividing the body or structure into anterior and posterior portions
Inferior (caudal)
Below another structure
Lateral
Pertaining to the side
Medial
Pertaining to the middle or near the medial plane of the body
Posterior (dorsal)
Back side of the body
Prone
Lying on the belly (face down, palm down)
Proximal
Near the point of attachment to the trunk or near the beginning of a structure
Sagittal (lateral) plane
Lengthwise, vertical plane dividing the body or structure into right and left sides
Midsagittal plane
Divides the body into right and left halves
Superficial
On the surface
Superior (cephalic)
Above another structure
Supine
Lying on the back (face up, palm up)
Transverse (cross-sectional or axial) plane
Horizontal plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions