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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Variant
an individual organism that is recognizably different from an arbitrary standard type in that species
Autosome
any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
Self
to fertilize eggs with sperms from the same individual
Cross
the deliberate mating of two parental types of organisms in genetic analysis
Pure breeding line
a group of identical individual organisms that always produce offspring of the same phenotype when intercrossed
Character difference
alternative forms of the same attribute within a species
Recessive allele
an allele whose phenotypic effect is not expressed in a heterozygote
Parental generation (P)
the two strains or individual organisms that constitue the start of a genetic breeding experiment; their progeny is the F1 generation
First filial generation (F1)
produced by crossing two parental lines
Reciprocal crosses
a pair of crosses of the type genotype A(female) x genotype B (male) and B (female) x A (male)
Dominant allele
an allele that expresses its phenotpic effect even when heterozygous with a recessive allele; thus, if A is a dominant over a, then A/A and A/a have the same phenotype
Dominant phenotype
the phenotype of a genotype containing the dominant allele; the parental phenotype that is expressed in a heterozygote
Equal segregation
equal numbers of progeny genotypes attributable to the seperation of two alleles of one gene at meiosis
Mendel's first law
the two members of a gene pair segregate from each other in meiosis; each gamete has an equal probability of obtaining either member of the gene pair
Heterozygote
an individual organism having a heterozygous gene pair
Recessive phenotype
the phenotype of a homozygote for the recessive allel; the parental phenotype that is not expressed in a heterozygote
Hybrid
a heterozygote;
an individual progeny from any cross between parents of different genotypes
Homozygote
an individual organism that is homozygous
Homozygous dominant
refers to a genotype such as A/A
Homozygous recessive
refers to a genotype such as a/a
Meiosis
two successive nuclear divisions (with corresponding cell divisions) that produce gametes (in animals) or sexual spores (in plants and fungi) that have one-half of the genetic material of the original cell
Monohybrid
a single-locus heterozygote of the type A/a
Monohybrid cross
a cross between two individuals identically heterozygous at one gene pair - for example, A/a x A/a
Dihybrid
a double heterozygote such as A/a ; B/b
Dihybrid cross
a cross between two individuals identically heterozygous at two loci - for example, A B/a b x A B/a b
Mendel's second law
the law of independent assortment; unlinked or distantly linked segregating gene pairs assort independently at meiosis
Testcross
a cross of an individual organism of unknown genotype or a heterozygote (or a multiple heterozygote) with a tester
Tester
an individual organism homozygous for one or more recessive alleles; used in a testcross
Product rule
the probability of two independent events occuring simultaneously is the product of the individual probabilities
Sum rule
the probability that one or the other of two mutually exclusive events will occur is the sum of their individual probabilities
Chi-square test
a statistical test used to determine the probability of obtaining observed proportions by chance, under a specific hypothesis
Pedigree
a "family tree," drawn with standard genetic symbols, showing inheritance patterns for specific phenotypic characters
Propositus
in a human pedigree, the person who first came to the attention of the geneticist
Sex chromosome
a chromosome whose presence or absence is correlated with the sex of the bearer; a chromosome that plays a role in sex determination
X chromosome
one of a pair of sex chromosomes, distinguished from the Y chromosome
Y choromosome
one of a pair of sex chromosomes, distinguished from the X chromosome
Homogametic sex
the sex with homologous sex chromosomes (XX)
Heterogametic sex
the sex that has heteromorphic sex chromosomes (XY) and hence produces two different kinds of gametes with respect to the sex chromosomes
Hemizygous gene
a gene present in only one copy in a diploid organism - for example, an X-linked gene in a male mammal
X linkage
the inheritance pattern of genes found on the X chromosome but not on the Y chromosome
Y linkage
the inheritance pattern of genes found on the Y chromosome but not on the X chromosome (rare)
Sex linkage
the location of a gene on a sex chromosome
SRY gene
the maleness gene, residing on the Y chromosome
Maternal inheritance
a type of uniparental inheritance in which all progeny have the genotype and phenotype of the parent acting as the female
Cytoplasmic segregation
segregation in which genetically different daughter cells arise from a progenitor that is a cytohet
Cytohet
a cell containing two genetically distinct types of a specific organelle