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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
energy
the ability to do work
chemical reaction
the process by which one or more suvstances change to produce one or more different substances
bonds are broken, the elements rearranged and new compounds formed as products
states of mareacttter
the motiom and spacing between atoms or molecules of a substance determine the substance's state
solid more closely linked, fixed volume ans shape
liquid move less rapidly, fixed volume
gasparticles moce most rapidly, little or not attraction, fill the volume of the container they occupy
reactant
left side of equation
a substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction
products
right side of the equation
a substance that forms in a chemical reaction
metabolism
used to describe all of the chemical reactions that occur in an organism
activation energy
(energy must be added for a chemical reaction to occur)
the amount of energy needed to start the reacation
catalysts
chemical substances that reduce the amount of activation energy that is needed for a reaction to take place
enzymes
(in living things enzymes act as catalyst)
a protein or RNA molecule that speeds up metabolic reactions without being permanently changed or destroyed
oxidation
a reactant loses one or more electrons, thus becomming more positive charge
redox reaction
reactions when electrons are transferred between atoms are know as oxidation reduction reactions
reduction reaction
reactant gains one or more electrons, becoming more negatively charged
polar
uneven distribution of charge, water is this type of compound
hydrogen bond
the force of attraction between a dydrogen molecule witha pratial positive charge and another atom or molecule with a partial or full negative charge
cohesion
an attractive force that holds molecules of a single substance together
adhesion
attractive force between two particle of different substances
water and glass molecules
capillary
attraction between molecules tha tresults in teh rise of the surface of a liquid when in contact with a solid.
solution
a mixture in which one or more substances are uniformly distributed in another substance
solute
a substance dissolved in the solvent
solvent
the substnace win which the solute is dissolved
concentration
amount of solute dissolved in a fixed amount of solution
saturated solution
a solution which no more solute can dissolve
aqueous solution
solutions in which water is the solvent
universally imp to all living things
hydroxide ion
the OH-ion
hydronium ion
the H3O+
acid
the number of hydronium ios in a solution is greater thatn the number of hydroxide ions
base
the solution that has more hydroxide ions than hydronium ions
ph scale
scientists have a developed a scale for comparing the relative concentrations of hydronium ions and hydorxide ions in a solution
buffers
chemical substances that neutralize small amounts of either an acid or a base added to a solution