Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Social forces
aspects of a culture that guide and shape relationships among people
The learning organization
an organizatino in which everyone is engaged in identifying and solving problems, enabling the organization to continually experiment, improve, and increase its capability
Classical perspective
emerged in the late 1800s, early 1900s- three sub fields: scientific management, bureaucratic organization, and administrative principles
Scientific manatgement
- Frederick Winslow Taylor (father of thought)
- precise procedures developed after careful study of individual situations
- pay incentives for meeting standards / eliminate interuptions
- Gantt Chart: bar graph that measures planned and completed work along a production line based off of time elapsed
- Downside: treated workers as tools and thereby marginalized them
Bureaucratic Organization
- organizations managed impartially on rational basis
- Max Weber: rational authority based on structure and positions
- Resources were being wasted because people loyal to manager not company of goal
- Bureaucracy: labor has clearly defined authority and repsonsibility, clear hierarchy of authority, all people are hired and promoted based on ability, administrative acts are recorded in writing, manageement is separate from ownership, managers are subjected to rules and procedures that will ensure reliable productive behavior
- organization based on rationale authority will be more efficient and adaptable to change
Administrative Principles
‘Focused on the total organisation rather than the individual worker, delineating the management functions of planning, organising, commanding, coordinating and controlling.’
- Fayol: unity of command = one boss
division of work= specialization
unity of direction = similar tasks in same department
scalar chain = chain of command from top down
Chester I Bernard: informal organization = the unofficial social networks within an organization
acceptance theory of organization = workers don't have to follow orders and thus should be treated as equals
Humanist Perspective
importance of understanding human behavior, needs, and attitude in the work lplace and social interactions
Hawthorne studies
- studies at an electrical plant over 6 years designed to test worker motivation and output
- recent analysis shows money was the key factor but at the time human relations were
- shaped the still current ideas that human relations are key to output
Human resource perspective
concerned with worker participation and considerate leadership but shifted emphasis to the daily task people perform
- jobs should be designed to motivate, not dehumanize
Behavioral science approach
develops theories about human behavior based on sceintific methods and study
- use sociology, anthropology, psychology, and economics to analyze hiring practices
Management science perspective
emerged after WWII and applied math, stats, and other quantitative techniques to managerial problems
- operations research, operations management, management information systems, queuing theory
Operations research
math model building
Operations management
focuses on the management of physical products
Management information systems
provide info to managers timely
Queing theory
using math to minimize customer wait time --> single line for multi-tellers at bank
"JIT" - inventory systems
- the delivery of supplies just as they are needed for the production process
- daily, weekly, fornightly restocking?
- problems: may need a buffer in case of input shortage
Systems theory
extension of humanistic perspective that describes organizations as open systems characterized by entropy, synergy, and subsystem interdependene
- environment: inputs --> organization (transformation process) --> outputs --feedback--> inputs
Open system
must interact with the environment
- entropy
- synergy
- subsystems
Closed system
isolated from environment
systems tendency to run down and die
whole is greater than sum of parts
--> departments must work well together
changes to one department will affect others
Contingency view
management problems are neither universal nor soley case but rather certain contingencies can be used given the organization situation
Total quality management
manage total organization to deliver quality to customers
- employee involvement: every employee focusses on quality control
- focus on customer: find out what they want and expect
- benchmarking: find out how competitors do things and do it better
- continuous improvement: continuous, small improvements organization-wide
Technology and sustainability trends
E-business: work an organization does using electronic linkages
E-commerce: business transactions done via electronic
Enterprise resource planning: info is available where and when needed
Knowledge management: fostering an intellectual atmosphere
Robert Owen
supporter for working and social rights for factory employees
Charles Babbage
"economy of time"
- was interested in efficiency and division of labor
Henry R. Towne
"cost effectiveness"
- it's not good enough to just build something good, it has to be cheap
- ** first to see management as a separate field or skill
- these thinkers operated independantly in their own field
Frederick W. Taylor
- father of scientific management
Frank and Cillian Gilbreth
time and motion studies--> off shoot of scientific management
- filming and clocking every motion in a job then figuring out a faster way
- used first with brick laying then surgery