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54 Cards in this Set

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Excessive anxiety can be caused by a chemical imbalance falls under what Psychological perspective?
Biological
What is a CONTROLLED CONDITION?
A testing situation where subjects are not exposed to the same treatment, or manipulation of an independent variable.
what is RANDOM ASSIGNMENT?
The randomly assigning subjects as numbers and putting those with even numbers in one group and those with odd numbers in another.
What is a PLACEBO?
A fake treatment, i.e. pills or injections with no active ingredients.
What is the purpose of a SURVEY?
Gathering of information by asking other people directly about their opinions, experiences and attitudes.
What is a REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE?
A group of subjects that accurately represents the larger population.
What is VOLUNTEER BIAS:
People who feel strongly enough to volunteer their opinions may differ from those who remain silent.
CORRELATION is?
Used a synonym for relationship; technically, it is a numerical measure of the STRENGTH of the relationship between two things.
What is an EXPERIMENT?
A controlled test of a hypothesis in which the researcher manipulates one variable to discover its effoect on another.
Describe PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS:
AKA Assessment Tests are procedures for measuring and evaluating personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, interests, abilities and values.
Describe OBJEXTIVE TESTS:
Tests that are designed to tap unconscious feelings or motives.
Describe RELIABILITY:
The ability to reconstruct results from one time or another or different place or another.
Describe NATURALISTIC STUDIES:
Determination as to how study's act in their own normal environment.
Describe LABORATORY OBSERVATION:
A preference of some psychologists to perform observerations in a laboratory environment that is provided by their own personal control.
Describe DESCRIPTIVE METHODS
Description/prediction of behavior but not necessarily to choose one explanation over competing ones.
Describe OBSERVATIONAL STUDY:
Observation, Measurement and Recording of behavior taking care to avoid to intruding on the study.
Define OPERATIONAL DEFINITION:
Specifies how the phenomena in question are to be observed and measured.
Define PRINCIPLE OF FALSIABILITY:
The principle that a scientific theory must make predictions that are specific enough to expose the theory to the possibility of dis-confirmation; that is, the theory must predict not only what will happen, but also what will not happen.
Describe CONFIRMATION BIAS:
The tendency to look for or pay attention only to information that confirms one's own belief.
Describe CASE STUDY:
A detailed description of a particular individual, based on careful observation or on formal psychological testing
Describe THEORY:
An organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships.
Describe HYPOTHESIS:
A statement that attempts to predict or to account for a set of phenomena; scientific hypotheses specify relationships among events or variables and are empirically tested.
What is CRITICAL THINKING?
The ability and willingness to assess claims and make judgments on the basis of well-supported reason and evidence, rather than emotion or anecdote.
What is PHRENOLOGY?
The discredited theory that differnt brain areas account for character and personality traits, which can "read" from bumps on the skull.
Define PSYCOTHERAPIST:
A person who does psychotherapy; may have anything from no degree to an advanced professional degree; the term is unregulated.
Define APPLIED PSYHCOLOGY:
"The study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance; also
the application of psychological findings.
Describe the BIOLOGICAL perspective:
A psychological approach that emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts.
Describe the COGNITIVE perspective:
A psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving and other areas of behavior.
Describe the LEARNING perspective:
A psychological approach that emphasizes mental process in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior.
Describe the PSYCHODYNAMIC perspective:
A psychological approach that emphasizes unconscious dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces, conflicts, or the movement of instinctual energy.
Describe the SOCIOCULTURAL perspective:
A psychological approach that emphasizes social and cultural influences on behavior.
Define FUNCTIONALISM:
An early psychological approach that emphasized the function or purpose of behavior and consciousness. Led by William James.
Define STRUCTULRISM:
An early psychological approach that emphasized the analysis of immediate experience into basic elements. Led by E.B. Tichner
What are the FIVE major PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES:
1. Biological
2. Learning
3. Cognitive
4. Sociocultural
5. Psychodynamic
What is the function of a DEVELOPMENTAL Psychologist:
Study how people change and grow over time - physically, mentally, and socially.
What is the function of an EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST?
Study psychological principles that explain learning and search for ways to improve educational systems.
What is the function of an EXPERIMENTAL PSYHCOLOGIST?
Conducts laboratory studies of learning, motivation, emotion, sensation and perception, physiology, and cognition.
What is the function of an INDUSTRIAL/ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST:
Study behaviors in the workplace. They are concerned with group decision making, employee morale, work motivation, productivity, job stress, personnel selection, marketing strategies, equipment design, etc.
What is FEMINIST PSYCHOLOGY?
A psychological approach that analyzes the influence of social inequities on gender relations and on the behavior of the two sexes.
What is HUMANIST PSYCHOLOGY?
A psychological approach that emphasizes personal growth and the achievement of human potential, rather than the scientific understanding and assessment of behavior.
What is a CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGIST:
Diagnoses, treats, and/or studies mental and emotional problems.both mild and sever; has a Ph.D., and Ed.D., or a Psy.D.
What is a PSYCHIATRIST:
Does work similar to that of a clinical psychologist but is like to take a more biological approach; has a medical degree (MD) with a speciality in Psychiatry.
What is a Psychoanlayst:
Practices psychoanalysis; has specific training in this approach after an advanced degree (usually, but not always, an M.D., or a Ph.D.); may treat any kind of emotional disorder or pathology.
Who is generally accredited as being the Father of Psychology and why?
Dr. Wilhelm Wundt [VIL-helm Voont] (1832-1920) established the first psychological laboratory in Leipzig, Germany in 1879. Was most notably known for his intent to define psychology a science in 1873.
A national emphasis on competition and success promotes anxiety about failure falls under what Psychological perspecdtive?
Sociocultural
Anxiety is due to forbidden unconscious desires falls under what Psychological perspective?
Psychodynamic
Anxiety symptoms often bring hidden rewards, such as being excused from exams falls under what Psychological perspective?
Behviorial
Anxious people often think about the future in distorted ways falls under what Psychological perspective?
Cognitive
What is EMPIRICAL evidence?
Relying on or derived from observation, experimention, or measurement.
Define PSYCHOBABBLE:
Psuedoscience and quackery covered by a veneer of psychological language.
What is the function of a CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGIST?
Performs Psychotherapy and sometimes research; may work in private practice, mental health clinics, general hospitals, mental hospitals, research labs, and/or college/university settings.
Define: TRAINED INTROSPECTION
An early psychological practice established by Wundt that focused on observation, analysis and description of sensations, mental images, and emotions. Later, this process was rejected as being TOO subjective.
Define PPSYCHOLOGY
The science of behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism's physical state, mental state, and external environment.
Describe STANDARDIZED TEST:
Whether uniform procedures exist for giving and scoring the test.