Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/44

Click to flip

44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List the seven most frequently sited dimensions making up intellectual abilities.
The seven most frequently sited dimensions making up intellectual abilities are:
1. Number aptitude
2. Verbal comprehension 3. Perceptual speed
4. Inductive reasoning 5. Deductive reasoning
6. Spatial visualization 7. Memory
Define cognitive intelligence.
Cognitive intelligence encompasses the aptitudes that have long been tapped by traditional intelligence tests.
Define physical ability.
Physical ability is the capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics.
Which turn of the century physiologist first conducted experiments out of which key concepts of classical conditioning were introduced?
Classical conditioning grew out of experiments to teach dogs to salivate in response to the ringing a bell, conducted at the turn of the century by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov.
What is the social learning theory?
The social learning theory:
People can learn through observation and direct experience.
What are motor reproduction processes?
After a person has seen a new behavior by observing the model, the watching must be converted to doing. This process then demonstrates that the individual can perform the modeled activities
What are the two major types of reinforcement schedules?
The two major types of reinforcement schedules are continuous and intermittent.
What is a variable-interval schedule?
Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses.
The typical OB Mod program follows a five-step problem-solving model. List the five steps.
The typical OB Mod program
follows a five-step problem-solving model:
1. Identifying critical behaviors
2. Developing baseline data
What is self-management?
Self-management is defined as learning techniques that allow individuals to manage their own behavior so that less external management control is necessary.
Which is more effective:
reinforcement or punishment?
Our knowledge about learning further suggests that reinforcement is a more effective tool than punishment.
What does ability mean?
Ability means an individual's capacity to perform the various tasks in a job.
What is the major dilemma faced by employers who use mental ability tests for selection, promotion, training, and similar personnel decisions?
The major dilemma faced by employers who use mental ability tests for selection, promotion, training, and similar personnel decisions is that they may have a negative impact on racial and ethnic groups.
Define social intelligence.
Social intelligence is a person's ability to relate effectively to others.
How is complex behavior acquired?
All complex behavior is learned.
Define operant conditioning.
Operant conditioning is a type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment.
The influence of models is central to the social-learning viewpoint. Four processes have been found to determine the influence that a model will have on an individual. List the four processes.
1. Attentional processes
2. Retention processes
3. Motor reproduction processes
4. Reinforcement processes.
What are the reinforcement processes?
Individuals can be motivated to exhibit the modeled behavior if positive incentives or rewards are provided. Behaviors that are positively reinforced will be given more attention, learned better, and performed more often.
What is a continuous reinforcement schedule?
A continuous reinforcement schedule reinforces the desired behavior each and every time it is demonstrated.
What is a fixed-ratio schedule?
Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses.
The typical OB Mod program follows a five-step problem-solving model. List the five steps.
The typical OB Mod program follows a five-step problem-solving model:
1. Identifying critical behaviors
2. Developing baseline data
3. Identifying behavioral consequences
4. Developing and implementing an intention strategy
5. Evaluating performance improvement.
What are the two sets of factors that an individual's overall abilities are essentially made up of?
An individual's overall abilities are essentially made up of two sets of factors:
1. Intellectual
2. Physical abilities
What does careful review of the evidence regarding tests that assess verbal, numerical, spatial, and perceptual abilities show?
A careful review of the evidence regarding tests that assess verbal, numerical, spatial, and perceptual abilities are valid predictors of job proficiency at all levels of jobs.
Define emotional intelligence.
Emotional intelligence is the ability to identify, understand, and manage emotions.
What is learning?
Learning is any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.
Which Harvard psychologist expanded our knowledge of operant conditioning?
What Pavlov did for classical conditioning, the Harvard psychologist B .F. Skinner did for operant conditioning.
What are attentional processes?
People learn from a model only when they recognize and pay attention to its critical features. We tend to be most influenced by models that are attractive, repeatedly available, important to us, or similar to us estimation.
What are we doing when we attempt to mold individuals by guiding their learning in graduated steps?
When we attempt to mold individuals by guiding their learning in graduated steps we are shaping behavior. We shape behavior by systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response.
What is intermittent reinforcement?
A behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time but not every time it is demonstrated.
What is a variable-ratio schedule?
The reward varies relative to the behavior of the individual.
What do sick leave programs reinforce?
The reality is that sick leave programs reinforce the wrong behavior---absence from work.
What is the prima facie evidence that learning has taken place?
Any observable change in behavior is prima facie evidence that learning has taken place.
Define biographical characteristics.
Employee's age, gender, marital status, and length of service with an organization are examples of biographical characteristics. These personal characteristics are objective and easily obtained from personnel records.
Define intellectual ability.
Intellectual ability is the capacity to do mental activities.
Intelligence contains four subparts. List them.
Intelligence contains four subparts:
1. Cognitive
2. Social
3. Emotional
4. Cultural
Define cultural intelligence.
Cultural intelligence is awareness of cross-cultural differences and the ability to function successfully in cross-cultural situations.
What is classical conditioning?
Classical conditioning is a type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response.
What was B. F. Skinners theory regarding operant conditioning?
B. F. Skinner’s theory regarding operant conditioning was that people will most likely engage in desired behaviors if they are positively reinforced for doing so. Rewards are most effective if they immediately follow the desired response. In addition, behavior that is not rewarded, or is punished, is less likely to be repeated.
What are retention processes?
A model's influence will depend on how well the individual remembers the model's action after the model is no longer readily available.
There are four ways in which to shape behavior. List all four.
There are four ways in which to shape behavior:
1. Positive reinforcement
2. Negative reinforcement
3. Punishment
4. Extinction
What is a fixed-interval schedule?
Rewards are spaced at uniform intervals.
What is behavior modification or OB Mod?
Behavior modification or OB Mod is the application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting.
What cost does punishment carry?
Our knowledge about punishment's effect on behavior indicates that the use of discipline carries costs. It may provide only a short-term solution rather than elimination of the behavior, and result in serious side effects.
Name a powerful tool for modifying behavior.
Positive reinforcement is a powerful tool for modifying behavior. By identifying and rewarding performance-enhancing behaviors, management increases the likelihood that they will be repeated.