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82 Cards in this Set

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John Smith
(c. January 1580 – June 21, 1631) was an English soldier, explorer and author. he established the first permanent English settlement in North America at Jamestown, Virginia. (This adventurer instituted military discipline and perhaps saved the Virginia colony at Jamestown.)
Jamestown
located in the Virginia colony. was founded on May 14, 1607. it is the first permanent settlement in what is now the United States of America.
Joint Stock Company
a type of corporation or partnership involving two or more legal persons. offers the protection of liability.
Indentured Servant
a worker under contract to an employer for a fixed period of time in exhcange for their transporation, food, clothing, lodging and other necessities. (Mostly young and single European immigrants who entered into work contracts for a specified period of years in exchange for free passage to America and sometimes a promise of land at the end of the contract.)
Puritans
English speaking protestants in the 16th and 17th century. thought that the Protestant Reformation under Elizabeth was incomplete and advocated the simplification and regulation of forms of worship
John Winthrop
(12 January 1588– 26 March 1649) obtained a royal charter, along with other wealthy Puritans. led a group of English Puritans to the New World in 1630. (He led about 1000 Puritans to America in 1630 and was elected the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.)
King Philips War
aka Metacom's War/Rebellion. an armed conflict between Native American inhabitants of present-day southern New England and English colonists and their Native American allies. (1675-1676)
The Headright System
used in Jamestown, Virginia in 1618 as an attempt to solve labor shortages due to the advent of the tobacco economy, which required large plots of land with many workers. It was also a way to attract immigrants. (This was used in Virginia to encourage immigration by giving 50 acres of land to any settler who brought a servant.)
Bacon's Rebellion
an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon, a wealthy planter. first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part. uprising was a protest against Native American raids on the frontier.
William Penn
(October 14, 1644 – July 30, 1718) an English real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, and founder and "absolute proprietor" of the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony and the future U. S. State of Pennsylvania. notable for his good relations and successful treaties with the Lenape Indians. PROVIDE A REFUGE FOR PERSECUTED ENGLISH QUAKERS. (This Quaker viewed his colony as a "Holy Experiment.")
Quakers
thought of themselves as part of the restoration of the true Christian church after centuries of apostasy. (A visionary radical Protestant sect whose members believed in an Inner Light that brought them close to God, equality in religious and social life, pacifism, and defiance of authority when it denied their rights to practice their religion.)
Mercantilism
an economic theory, thought to be a form of economic nationalism,[1] that holds that the prosperity of a nation is dependent upon its supply of capital, and that the global volume of international trade is "unchangeable". The theory dominated Western European economic policies from the 16th to the late-18th century.
Navigation Acts
a series of laws which restricted the use of foreign shipping for trade between England (after 1707 Great Britain) and its colonies, which started in 1651.
Roger William
(circa 1603 – between January and March 1683) an American Protestant theologian, and the first American proponent of religious freedom and the separation of church and state. started the First Baptist Church in America. a student of Indian languages and an advocate for fair dealings with Native Americans. (In 1635 he was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony because he said that the government had no authority over the personal opinions of individuals. He founded Rhode Island as a colony for religious freedom.)
Ane Hutchinson
(baptized July 20, 1591[1][2] – August 20, 1643) a pioneer settler in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Netherlands and the unauthorized minister of a dissident church discussion group. held Bible meetings for women that soon appealed to men as well.
John Coodes
(c. 1648, Cornwall – February or March 1709) known for leading a rebellion that overthrew Maryland's colonial government in 1689. participated in four separate uprisings and briefly served as Maryland's governor (1689-1691).
Rebellion
a refusal of obedience or order. seen as encompassing a range of behaviors from civil disobedience and mass nonviolent resistance, to violent and organized attempts to destroy an established authority such as a government.
The Calverts
1366 in Yorkshire, England. six Lords Baltimore.
Incas
they lived in the highland center, Cuzco. the Incas ruled proxy. they were ancient people and began to expand in the twelfth century. by the sixteenth century they had control over more territory than any other people had done in South America.
Mayas
the Mayas were never a "true" urban culture. the Maya culture was largely tribal and rural all throughout the Classic Period. The cities the Mayas built were ceremonial centers. for the most part, the Maya population lived in small farming villages.
Aztecs
a wandering Native American tribe who came to Mexico during the 13th century. they built a great civilization including cities, pyramids, and temples. in 1519, Spanish Conquistadors arrived in Mexico and defeated the Aztecs.
Woodland Indians
they were trappers, hunters, planters, and fishermen. they helped form the first peaceful nation among the Native American people. the Indian had more time to plant and harvest. they perfected the skills of bead making. these valuable bead were called wampum and they were used to decorate their clothing and more.
Agriculture (Natives)
American Indigenous peoples domesticated, bred and cultivated a large array of plants species. they sometimes developed new species and strains through artificial selection.
Leif Erikson
(c. 970 - c. 1020) he was a Norse Explorer who is regarded as the first European to land in North America. He established a Norse settlement at Vinland.
Prince Henry the Navigator
(March 4, 1394 - November 13, 1460) he was a prince of the Kingdom of Portugal and he was responsible for the beginning of the European worldwide explorations and maritime trade.
Christopher Columbus
(c. October 31, 1451 - May 20, 1506) he was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer from Genoa, Italy. His 4 voyages of exploration and several attempts at establishing a settlement on the Island of Hispaniola, he initiated the process of Spanish colonization which foreshadowed general European Colonization of the "New World"
Ferdinand Magellan
(c. 1480 – April 27, 1521) he was a Portuguese Explorer. His expedition became the first to sail from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. It also completed the first circumnavigation of the Earth, although he did not complete it himself because he was killed in the Battle of Mactan.
The Conquistadors
it means conquerors. it is a Spanish term used to refer to the Spanish soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas under the control of Spain in the 15th century to the 19th century.
Hernan Cortes
(1485 – December 2, 1547) he was a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of Mexico under the rule of King of Castile.
Francisco Pizarro
(c. 1471 or 1476 – 26 June 1541) he was a Spanish Conquistador. he was the conqueror of the Incan empire and the founder of Lima, the modern day capital of Peru.
Encomienda
it is a labor system that was employed by the Spanish crown during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and the Philippines. the crown granted a person a specified number of natives for whom they were to take responsibility.
Pueblo Revolt
it happened in 1680 and it is also known as Pope's rebellion. it was an uprising of many pueblos of the Pueblo people against Spanish colonization of the Americas in the New Spain province of New Mexico.
Mestizo
it is a Spanish term used during the Spanish colonial period in Latin America to refer to people of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry.
John Cabot
(c. 1450 - c. 1499) he was an Italian navigator and explorer. his 1497 discovery of North America is held to be the first European voyage to the continent since Norse Exploration of the Americas. he also landed on the island of Newfoundland.
Richard Hakluyt
(c. 1552 - 23 November 1616) he was an English writer. he is remembered for his efforts in promoting and supporting the settlement of North America by the English through his works.
John Calvin
(July 10, 1509 - May 27, 1564) he was a French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. he was one of the principal figures in the development of the system of Cristian theology which was later called Calvinism. he was trained as a humanist lawyer, and he broke from the Roman Catholic Church.
Elizabeth the I
(September 7 1533 – March 24 1603) she was a queen regnant of England and of Ireland. she was the fifth and las monarch of the Tudor dynasty. she was born as a princess but then later became a illegitimate. she supported the English protestant church and became the supreme governor.
English Reformation
it was a series of events during the 16th century in which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.
Coureur des bois
he engaged in the fur trade without permision from the French authorities. operated during the late 17th century and early 18th century in eastern North America especially in New France. later permits were issued and became known as voyageurs.
Doctrine of Predestination
it is a doctrine of Calvinism which deals with the question of the control God exercises over the world. predestination applies to salvation and refers to the belief that God appointed the eternal destiny of some to salvation by grace, while leaving the remainder to receive eternal damnation for all their sins, even their original sin.
St. Augustine 1565
it is a northeats section of Florida. it was founded in 1565 by Pedro Menendez de Aviles who was a Spanish explorer and admiral. it lies in "the first coast."
New Amsterdam
it was a Dutch colonial settlement in the 17th century that served as the capital of New Netherland but later became New York City.
Sir Walter Raleigh
(c. 1552 – October 29 1618) hw was an English aristocrat, writer, poet, soldier, courtier, spy and explorer who is also known for making tobacco in England pupular. he was born in a Protestant family.
James I
(June 19 1566 – March 27 1625) as King od Scots he was James VI and as King of Ireland and England he was James I. the "Golden Age" of Elizabethan literature and drama continued. he was also a talented scholar.
Virginia Company
it refers to a pair of English joint stock companies chartered by James I with the purpose of establishing settlements on the Coast of North America. there were two companies: "Virginia Company of London" and "Virginia Company of Plymouth"
Mayflower Comapct
it was the 1st governing document of Plymouth Colony. it was written by colonists later known as pilgrims. most of the colonists were part of the separatists group and wanted to have freedom to practice Christianity. it was signed on November 11, 1620 by 41 ships more than 100 passengers. FOUNDATION FOR SELF-GOVERNMENT.
William Bradford
(March 19, 1590 - May 9, 1657) he was the Plymouth governor. he was also an English leader of the settlers of the Plymouth colony in Massachusetts and was elected to be governor thirty times. he was the first to proclaim what popular American culture now views as the first Thanksgiving.
Pequot War
1634 - 1638 it was an armed conflict between an alliance of Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies with Native allies against the Pequot tribe. the result was the elimination of the Pequot. most were killed or captured into slavery.
English Civil War
(1642 - 1651) it was a series of armed conflict and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. there were three civil wars. the Civil war ended with the Parliamentary victory at the Battle of Worcester on September 3, 1651.
Middle Colonies
they are also called the Bread Colonies or the Breadbasket Colonies due to their production of wheat, grain and oats. it was one area of the Thirteen British Colonies. the U.S. states part of the middle colonies are Delaware, New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania. Dutch Connecticut is sometimes consider part of the middle colonies.
Black Codes
they were laws passed on the state and local level in the United States. it was to basic human rights and civil liberties of African Americans. it is used more often to refer to legislation passed by southern states at the end of the Civil War to control the labor, movements and activities of newly-freed slaves.
Holy experiment
it was an attempt by the Quakers to a establish a community for themselves in Pennsylvania. they hoped it will show the world how well they could function on their own without any persecution or dissension.
Chaco Canyon
between 900 and 1150 AD, Chaco Canyon was a mayor center of culture for the Ancient Pueblo Peoples. Chacoans quarried snadstone blocks and hauled timber from great distances. Many of the Chacoan buildings may have been aligned to capture the solar and lunar cycles. climate change is thought to have led to the abandonment of the canyon.
John Locke
(August 9 1632 – October 28 1704) he was an English philosopher and physician and he was regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. he is equally important to the social contract theory. he took part in classical republicanism and liberal theory. this can be reflected in the American Declaration of Independence. he thought that the mind was a blank state of tabula rasa. he said that we are born without innate ideas, and that knowledge is determined only by experience derived from sense perception.
Plymouth Plantation
1620 - 1691 (colony) it was an English colonial venture in North America. it was founded by a group of separatists and Anglicans, and it was one of the earliest successful colonies to be founded by the English in North America and the first permanent English settlement in the New England region.
Mobile Societies (natives)
they wish to explore the world and they have the desire and ability to make their homes available for like-minded.
Catholic Missionaries
The New Testament outreach of the Christian church was extensive throughout the Roman Empire. they propagated learning and religion beyond the boundaries of the old Roman Empire. The Augustinians, Franciscans, and Dominicans went on misions in order to spread Christianity in the New World and to convert the Native Americans and other indigenous people.
Thomas Hooker
(July 5, 1586 – July 7, 1647) he was a Puritan religious and colonial leader. He founded the Colony of Connecticut after dissenting with Puritan leaders in Massachusetts. He was an outstanding speaker and a leader of universal Christian suffrage. He also took part in the one of the world’s first written constitution which was the “Fundamental Orders of Connecticut.”
Covenant Theology
It is also known as Covenantalism, Federal theology, or Federalism. It is a conceptual for understanding the overall flow of the Bible. It used the concept of covenant as an organizing principle of Christian theology. It views the history of God’s dealings with mankind in all of history under three theological covenants: the covenants of redemption, of works, and of grace.
Church of England (Anglican)
It is an officially established church in New England, the Mother Church of the Anglican Communion and the oldest of the communion’s 38 independent national and regional churches. It is both Catholic and Reformed. By Catholic it views itself as part of the universal church of Jesus Christ. By reformed it means that to the extent that it has been shaped by some of the doctrinal and institutional principles in the Protestant Reformation.
Cambridge Agreement
It was an agreement between the shareholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company made on August 29, 1629. This agreement led to the foundation of Boston, Massachusetts. It was a deal over whether the Massachusetts Bay Colony would be under local control, in New England, or under the control of the a corporate board in London. It guaranteed that Massachusetts would be a self-governing colony. It was named after Winthrop’s alma mater.
Saybrook Platform
It is the conservatives religious proposals adopted on September 1708 at Saybrook, Connecticut. It attempted to stem the tide of disunity among the established Congregational churches and restore discipline among both the clergy and their congregations. The “Fifteen Articles” was a brief conservative victory against a non-conformist tide which had begun with the Half-Way Covenant and would culminate in the Great Awakening.
James Edward Oglethorpe
(December 22 1696 – June 30 1785) he was a British general, a philanthropist, and he was the founder of the colony of Georgia. As a social reformer in Britain, he hoped to resettle Britain’s poor into the New World. He sailed for 88 days on the ship of Anne. PROVIDE A REFUGE FOR ENGLISH DEBTORS. (A prominent humanitarian, he led a group of settlers and helped found the colony of Georgia in 1732.)
Half-Way Covenant
It was created in 1662 by New England and it was a form of partial church membership. Only persons in full memberships could have their own children baptized, this was called a conversion experience. Second and third generations as well as immigrants did not have these same experiences and were not accepted as members despite leading otherwise pious and upright Christian lives. (An attempt by New England clergymen in 1662 to counteract declining church membership by allowing the children of church members to join even though they had not experienced salvation.)
Cavalier (1642-1647)
It was a named used by Parliamentarians for a royalist supporter of King Charles I during the English Civil War. Cavalier derives from the Spanish word “caballero” and it means “horseman”.
Sir Edmund Andros
(December 6, 1637 – February 24, 1714) he was an early colonial English Governor in North America, and he was head of the short-lived Dominion of New England.
Glorious Revolution
It is also called the Revolution of 1688. It was the overthrow of King James II of England in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians with an invading army led by William III of Orange-Nassau, who as a result ascended the English throne as William III of England.
Charter of Liberties
It is also called the Coronation Charter and it was a written proclamation by Henry I of England. It was issued upon his accession to the throne in 1100. It wanted to bind the King to certain laws regarding the treatment of church officials and nobles. It addressed abuses of royal powers by his predecessors, his brother William Rufus, the over-taxation of the barons, the abuse of the vacant sees, and the practices of simony and pluralism. It was generally ignored by monarchs until in 1213 Archbishop Langton reminded the nobles that their liberties had been guaranteed over a century prior in Henry I’s Charter of Liberties.
The Narragansett’s
They are an Algonquian Native American tribe from Rhode Island. Today they are enrolled in a federally recognized tribe. It controls 1,800 acres of trust lands in Charlestown, Rhode Island. The tribe is led by an elected tribal council, a chief sachem, a medicine man, and a Christian leader. The word “Narragansett” means “People of the small point.”
Colonial Currency
Few coins were minted in the thirteen colonies that became the United States in 1776; foreign coins like the Spanish dollar bill were widely circulated. Colonial governments sometimes used paper money to facilitate economic activity. There were three general types of money in the colonies of British America: commodity money, specie (coins) and paper money.
Theocratic Society
It is a form of government in which a God or deity is recognized as the state’s supreme civil ruler or a form of government in which a state is governed by immediate divine guidance or by the officials who are regarded as divinely guided. For believers, it is a form of government in which divine power governs an earthly human state. “Rule of god”.
Maryland Toleration Act
It is also known as the Act Concerning Religion. It was a law mandating religious tolerance for Trinitarian Christians. It was passed on April 21, 1649 by the assembly of the Maryland Colony; it was the second law requiring religious tolerance in the British North American colonies and created the first legal limitations on hate speech in the world. This act allowed freedom of worship for al Trinitarian Christians in Maryland, but sentenced to death anyone who denied the divinity of Jesus. (This law allowed freedom of worship for all Christians in Maryland to keep the peace between Catholics and Protestants there.)
Proprietary Rule
It was unpopular in South Carolina. Many Anglicans resented the Proprietor’s guarantee of freedom of religion to Dissenters. A proprietary design or technique is one that is owned by a company. It also implies that the company has not divulged specifications that would allow other companies to duplicate the product. One or more private land owners retain rights that are normally the privilege of the state and in all cases eventually became so. A COLONY LIKE NEW JERSEY THAT WAS RUN AS A PRIVATELY OWNED ESTATE.
Maryland and the Calverts
Maryland was an English colony in North America that existed form 1632 until 1776 when it joined the other 13 colonies in rebellion against Great Britain and became the U.S. state of Maryland. It was restored to the family when Charles Calvert, swore publicly that he was a Protestant. Calvert's father's had been stripped of his title of Secretary of State upon announcing his Roman Catholicism. The charter had originally been granted to Calvert's father, George Calvert. The original charter granted the Calverts an territory north of Virginia and south of the 40th parallel, making it perhaps as much as 12 million acres.
Roanoke (Tribe)
The tribe was a Carolina Algonquian speaking people whose territory comprised present-day Dare County, Roanoke Island and part of the mainland. 5,000-10,000 may have numbered in total in Eastern North Carolina. The last chief of the Roanoke was Wanchese.
Puritan Separatists
(Independents) they were radical Puritans who in the late 16th century advocated a reform within the Church of England. They set up churches outside the established order. Later separatists were dubbed “brownies” but the groups did not constitute an organized movement.
California 1760's
the area known as ALta California was colonized by the Spanish Empire. Mexico, including ALta California, became the First Mexican Empire, beginning as a monarchy before shifting to a republic. in 1864, a group of American settlers declared the independence of a California Republic. due to the Mexican-American War, Mexico ceded California to the United States. California became the 31st state admitted to the union on Sept 9, 1850.
Tobacco
an agricultural producted processed from the leaves and plants in the genus Nocotiana. it can be consumed and in some cases as medicine. on the other hand, it is most often used as a drug and it is a valuable cash crop for countries such as Cuba, China and the United States.
West India Company
it was a chartered company of Dutch mechants. it wa sgranted a charter for a trade monopoly in the West Indies and given jurisdiction over the African slave trade. the area where the company could operate consisted of West Africa and the Americas. it wa sment to eliminate competition between the various trading posts established by the merchants.
Powhantas
a Virginia Indian tribe, but it is also the name of a powerful tribe they dominated. they are also known as Virginia Algonquians because they spoke an eastern- Algonquian language known as Powhatan.
Ordinance of Discovery (Aztec)
law issued by King Philip II. The importance of this law was to keep track of all political and economic life in newly discovered places.
Lord De La Warr
(July 9, 1577 - June 7, 1618) he was the Englishman after whom the bay, the river, and, consequently, an American Indian people and U.S. state, all later called "Delaware", were named.