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24 Cards in this Set
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 Back
Cause and Effect

A relationship between two or more variables in which one variable influences or explains the change in the other variable


Correlation

When two or more variables change value together in the same or opposite direction.


Correlation of Zero

An independent relationship between two or more variables.


deductive model

Model of sociological research that begins with a general theory or set of hypotheses and then moves on to the collection of appropriate data to test the theory or hypotheses.


Dependent Variable

A variable whose value is believed to depend upon or to be caused by another variable.


Experiments

Carefully designed and controlled attempts, usually conducted in a laboratory, to determine the effect of specific variables on a particular dependent variable or on the behavior or attributes of the experiement's subjects.


Field Research

The study of social life in its natural setting


Hypothesis

A statement of the expected relationship between two or more variables.


Independent Variable

A variable that causes or produces change in the value of another dependent variable.


Inductive Grounded model

Model of sociological research that begins with specific observations upon which a theoretical account is then fashioned that accounts for and explains the observations and their meanings.


Negative correlation

A relationship between two variables such that in the majority of cases, when one variable increases in value, the other decreases in value.


Operationalize

To specify how the variable is to be measured.


Participant observation

a research method in which the researchr systematically observes people while actually joining with them in their activities.


Perfect positive Correlation

A relationship between two variables such that they both change together and in the same direction in all cases.


Positive correlation

A relationship between two variables such that they both change together in the same direction in the majority of cases.


population

The group of people to whom the results of research are applicable.


Qualitative Research

Research that emphasizes the uncovering of subjective meanings and ways people interact in everyday life through the use of descriptive, rather than numerical data.


Quanitative research

Research that emphasizes the statistical analysis of numerical data.


Random Sampling

Process by which each member of a population of interest has the same chance of being selected for participation in the study.


Reliability

Consistency in the measurement of a variable over time, the quality of measurement of the variable that suggests that the same results and data would be collected in repeated observations.


Sample

A subgroup of the population from which the researcher will collect data


Secondary analysis of exisiting data

The use of data initially collected by other researchers to analyze a topic of interest.


Validity

The extent to which a variable actually measures what it is intended to measure.


Representative Sample

A Subgroup of the population that accurately reflects the composition of the population as well as the distribution of important characteristics and attributes within the population.
