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96 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Apical
upper surface of the cell
basal
lower surface that epithelial cell rests on which is attached to an basement membrane
lateral
sides surface of the cell
Cell (plasma) membrane
Surface boundry of cell; serves as external cell barrier and provides a selectively permeable membrane
Cell (plasma) membrane
Phospholipid bilayer embedded with proteins
Cell (plasma) membrane
Functions include physical isolation, sensitivity and recognition, structural support, control of transport in and out of cell
Cytoplasm
General term for material inside the cell located between the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane
Cytoplasm-4 items that it consists of?
Consists of cytosol(intracellular fluid and dissolved solutes), inclusions, cytoskeleton and organelles(metabolic machinery of cells)
Nucleus
Largest organelle, surrounded by nuclear envelope, containing nucleoplasm, nucleoli, and chromatin
Nucleus
Stores genetic information to control synthesis of approx. 100,000 different proteins; control center for cellular operations.
1. Cell (plasma) membrane

Components:
•Phospholipids-Polar head with phosphate group, charged and hydrophilic(water loving); Nonpolar lipid tail(two fatty acids), uncharged and hydrophobic(water hating)
•Cholesterol-lipids embedded in membrane, stabilizes lipid bilayer
•Membrane Carbohydrates(glycolipids)-branched sugar molecules attached to phospholipids or proteins in the lipid bilayer; aid in cell recognition and communication; form Glycocalyx “sugar covering”
•Proteins-two types, integral and peripheral
Integral proteins-firmly inserted into lipid bilayer, most are transmembrane
Peripheral proteins- loosely attached to inner or outer layer via membrane lipids and/or proteins
Integral proteins
firmly inserted into lipid bilayer, most are transmembrane
Peripheral proteins
loosely attached to inner or outer layer via membrane lipids and/or proteins
Microvilli
“little shaggy hairs”, fingerlike extensions of the plasma membrane supported by microfilaments; increase surface area of plasma membrane; brush border at apical cell surface
Cilia
long, hairlike surface extension; primary, non motile cilia common in sensory organs; motile cilia widespread in respiratory tract-move in waves to generate fluid currents
Flagella
-long, solitary, motile cilia; only functional flagella in humans is whiplike tail of the male gamete(sperm)
Attachments between cells(intercellular junctions):
• Tight Junctions
• Desmosomes
• Gap Junctions
Tight Junctions
form impermeable junction, prevent molecules from passing between adjacent cell in an epithelium, hold cells together like a “zipper”; seals off intercellular space and makes it difficult for substances to pass between the cells
Desmosomes
anchoring junctions, mechanical couplings between cells to hold them together, holds cells together like a “snap”; keep cells from pulling apart and thus enable a tissue to resist mechanical stress
Gap Junctions
communication between cells, allows chemical messengers to rapidly pass between cell
Cytosol-
intracellular fluid in which cytoplasm elements are suspended(e.g. water, salts, sugars, proteins). It is a complex mixture with properties of both true suspension and colloid
Inclusions
large storage particles of chemical substances (e.g. lipid droplets, glycogen granules, pigment (melanin) granuals); any visible object in the cytoplasm of a cell other than an organelle or cytoskeletal element
Organelles
“little organs”, metabolic machinery of cell; two types-membranouse and nonmembranous
• Mitochondria
contain enzymes that synthesize ATP; sites of cellular respiration; complex organelle with own DNA and RNA and capable of division
• Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
network of interconnecting tubes and channels formed by parallel membranes within cytosol
o Rough ER
embedded with ribosomes, protein synthesis and membrane factory
o Smooth ER
enzymes located here catalyze reactions involved in lipid metabolism, lipid and steroid synthesis, drug detoxification
• Golgi Apparatus
directs traffic of protein made at the RER; modifies, concentrates, and packages proteins into membrane-bound vesicles
• Lysosomes
spherical membranous bags containing enzymes for digestion of substances within cells “demolition crews” of cell
Peroxisomes-
membranous sacs containing powerful oxidases and catalyses important for detoxification; neutralize dangerous free radicals
Ribosomes
sites of protein synthesis, composed of ribosomal RNA; Free ribosomes float freely in cytoplasm and specifically synthesize soluble proteins that function in cytosol
Cytoskeleton
“cell skeleton” acts as bones, muscles, and ligaments of a cell; with 3 major components:
Cytoskeleton
3 major components?
o Microtubules-
o Microfilaments
o Intermediate Filaments
Microtubules-
determine overall shape of cell and arrangement of organelles; provides cell strength and rigidity; hollow tubules constructed out of tubulin protein
Microfilaments
involved in cell motility, intracellular movement and cell shape(e.g. actin and myosin contractile proteins); thinnest filaments
Intermediate Filaments
internal guy wires, most stable and permanent of the cytoskeletal elements; contribute to the formation of desmosomes
Centrioles
short, cylindrical assembly of microtubules; organize mitotic spindle; form base of attachment for cilia and flagella
Nucleus
3 Components?
• Nuclear envelope
• Nucleoli
• Chromatin
Nuclear envelope
double membrane surrounding nucleus; encloses fluid component of nucleus called nucleoplasm which contains dissolved salts, nutrients, etc; chemical communication between nucleus and cytosol occurs through nuclear pores
Nucleoli
spherical bodies within the nucleus. Sites where ribosomes are manufactured and assembled
Chromatin
composed of DNA and histone proteins. Chromatin threads coil and condense into chromosomes; nuclei contain 23 pairs of chromosomes
G1 phase
normal cell functions; cell growth, duplication of organelles; interval(gap) between cell division and DNA synthesis
S phase
DNA replication and synthesis of histones
G2 phase
synthesis of proteins that control mitosis and cytokinesis; interval between DNA synthesis and cell division
M phase
mitosis and cytokinesis; replication of nucleus and division of cytoplasm into two daughter cells
G0 phase
cell exits cell cycle for a “rest” phase
Name the 6 major components of a generalized human cell?
Plasma membrane
cytoplasm
cytoskeleton
nucleoplasm
organelles
inclusions
They cytoplasm consists of a fluid called________, __________, ___________, & _________
Cytosol, inclusions, organelles, cytoskeleton
Cell membranes are described as a double layer of ______________ molecules with ______________ molecules and integral and peripheral ______________ dispersed within it.
phopholipid
cholesterol
proteins
Which part of the phospholipid molecule constitues the:
Hydrophobic region?
Hydrophilic region?
Fatty acid tails
Polar Head
Six functions of the plasma membrane?
receptors
enzymes
channel proteins
cell identity markers
cell adhesion molecules
carriers
structural
What types of molecules can diffuse through the plasma membrane without assistance?
Small uncharged lipid soluble molecules
Passive or Active?
Diffusion
passive
Passive or Active?
Osmosis
Passive
Passive or Active?
Facilitated Diffusion
passive
Passive or Active?
Soute Pumps
active
Passive or Active?
Exo/Endocytosis
active
What crosses the membrane?
Diffusion
solutes and water
What crosses the membrane?
Osmosis
Water
What crosses the membrane?
facilitated diffuision
Solute
What crosses the membrane?
Solute Pumps
solute
What crosses the membrane?
Exo/Endocytosis
Soulute and water
Follows or moves against a concentration gradient?
Diffusion
follows
Follows or moves against a concentration gradient?
Osmosis
follows
Follows or moves against a concentration gradient?
Facilitated Diffusion
Follows
Follows or moves against a concentration gradient?
Solute Pumps
Against
Follows or moves against a concentration gradient?
Exo/Endocytosis
Either
Requires ATP?
Diffusion
No
Requires ATP?
Osmosis
No
Requires ATP?
Faciliated Diffusion
No
Requires ATP?
Solute Pumps
Yes
Requires ATP?
Exo/Endocytosis
Yes
Requires carrier proteins?
Diffusion
no
Requires carrier proteins?
Osmosis
no
Requires carrier proteins?
Faciliated Diffusion
yes
Requires carrier proteins?
Solute Pumps
yes
Requires carrier proteins?
Exo/Endocytosis
yes
Hypertonic means?
More solute
Less water
Hypotonic means?
Less Solute
More Water
For Diffusion to occur there must be a _____________-?
Conentration gradient
smooth ER
lipid and steriod synthesis
inclusions
lipid droplets, glycogen granules
gap junctions
rapid chemical communication
desmosomes
anchoring juntions between cells
gogli
packages proteins into vesicles
chromatin
loosely coiled DNA and histones
Cytosol
intracellular fluid
cytoskeleton
internal protein framework
microvilli
increase cell surface area
ribosomes
organelle for protein synthesis
mitochondria
cell respiration, ATP production
lysosomes
digestive enzymes
nucleus
control center for cell operations
chromosomes
supercoiled chromatin
nucleoli
synthesis of ribosomes
centrioles
organize mitotic spindle