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22 Cards in this Set

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what are the four kinds of bonding?
- ionic
- covalent
- Van der Waals
- Hydrogen
What is the difference between a solution and a suspension?
a solution is all mixed together(homogeneous) whereas a suspensin is not ( heterogeneous) blood is a suspension, salt water is a solution
in salt water, what is the solvent and what is the solute?
water is the solvent (universal solvent) and salt is the solute.
what is a buffer?
a buffer is a weak acid or base. it is present in cells and prevents severe swings - acidic or basic. trys to make things neutral.
what is Alkaline?
basic
what is carbon's structure and bonding?
Carbon was 4 electrons on its outer shell - so 4 electrons to covalently bond to. It can also bond to itself.

in a 1:2:1 structure - C:H:O
Macromolecules
micromolecules
"giant molecule"
small molecule
monomers
polymers
single, form chains (polymer)
*** There are specific kinds of polymers
-carbohydrates
-lipids
-nucleic acids
-proteins
glucose
a simple sugar, it is found in humans (blood sugar)
simple sugars
basic unit
Enzymes
break down things - starch into glucose
cant do this to cellulose
monosaccharides
single/simple sugar
examples -glucose, fructose, galactose, mannose
disaccharides
lit 2 sugars
examples - sucrose, lactose (milk), maltose (beer)
polysaccharides
many simple sugars connected
examples - starch and cellulose
Lipids
soluble in nonploar solvents (insoluble in water), they store energy (fats), important component of cell membranes
Fats and oils
classic lipids, composed of 3 fatty acids and glyceral

fats are nonpolar - do not dissolve in water
saturated / unsaturated fats
sat - no double bonds between carbon
examples - cheese, butter

unsat - have double bonds which produces a bend in molecule
examples - corn, sesame, peanut, cooking oils
phospholipids
phosphate group, glyceral, fatty acids
part of cell membrane
hydrophobic
doesnt like h2o
Nucleic Acids
macromolecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus
nucleotide
monor -> nucleic acid (polymer)
DNA, RNA
sugar is present in RNA, DNA critical part of life - genes