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208 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What arethe 4 basic tissues?
epithelium, connective tissue, muscular tissue and nervous tissue
Where do you find epithelium?
Epithelium rests on the basement membrane.
What does the epithelium basement membrane consist of?
Lamina lucida, Lamina densa (basalis), subbasal lamina
What does lamina lucida and lamina densa consist of?
Composed mainly of proteoglycans and a special type of collagen.
What is the major function of epithelium?
protection, absorption, secretion and diffusion.
What is Simple squamous epithelium?
A single layer of thin, flat and scalelike cells, with a spherical or oval nucleus.
What is Simple Cuboidal epithelium?
a single layer of cuboidal cells with centrally placed nucleus
What is Simple columnar epithelium?
consist of tall and narrow cells. The nucleus is oval and located near the base of the cell
Where can Simple squamous epithelium be found?
lining of the blood vessels, pleural and peritoneal cavities, pulmonary alveoli and glomerular capsule
Where can Simple Cuboidal epithelium be found?
thyroid gland, collecting ducts of the kidney
Where can Simple columnar epithelium be found?
stomach, intestine and gall bladder
What is Pseudostratified Columnar epithelium ?
single layer of cells,w/ different shapes
nuclei are located at various levels.
Where can you find Pseudostratified Columnar epithelium ?
In trachea and bronchi in ciliated form.
What is Stratified Squamous epithelium?
several layers of superficial cells having a squamous shape
found skin (keratinized form) and cornea (non-keratinized).
Where do you find Stratified Cuboidal epithelium?
lining the excretory duct of glands
Where do you find Stratified columnar epithelium?
in parotid and mandibular gland ducts.
What is transitional epithelium and where can it be found?
Lines certain hollow organs and capable of considerable distention, e.g., urinary bladder and urethra
What is the difference between bulging and flat transitional epithelium?
In the relaxed state, the superficial cells are dome-shaped and bulge into the lumen
When stretched, it is reduced to only a few layer of flattened cells.
What is gland?
A structure that consist of glandular or secretory epithelium
What is the difference between parenchyma and stroma?
A structure that consist of glandular or secretory epithelium and duct system (parenchyma) with a supportive framework of connective tissue (stroma).
How are glands classified?
Unicellular and multicellular glands
Endocrine and exocrine
What is an endocrine gland?
ductless gland,
secretions are released into intercellular fluid then sent to the blood
What is an exocrine gland?
Exocrine (with a system of ducts); can be either simple or compound gland.
Give 3 examples of a simple tubular gland?
Simple straight tubular- (large intestine)
Simple coiled tubular-(sweat gland)
Simple branched tubular (stomach)
Give an example of a Simple alveolar or acinar gland?
sebaceous gland
Give an example of a simple branched acinar or alveolar gland.
large sebaceous gland
Where do you find a simple tubulo-acinar(alveolus) gland?
Minor salivary gland of oral cavity
What are the 3 types of compound glands?
Compound tubular
Compound alveolar or acinar
Compound tubulo-alveolar
_________ is a type of compound gland found in the pancreas.
Compound tubulo-alveolar
_________ is a type of compound gland found in the parotid gland.
Compound alveolar or acinar
What type of compound glands are found in the pancreas?
compound tubulo-alveolar
What do serous glands produce and where are they found?
produce a thin, watery secretion,filled with small secretory granules (zymogen granules) found in the parotid salivary gland
What do mucous glands produce?
produce a thick, viscous (mucin) secretion that form a protective covering
What is a Seromucous or mixed gland and where is it found?
Have both serous and mucous acini. e.g., in the mandibular salivary gland
Secretory granules enclosed in a membrane, discharging by exocytosis is an example of what mode of secretory release?
A membrane-bounded granule, together with a rim of cytoplasm and plasmalemma that is released from the apex of the cell, e.g., sweat and mammary glands, is an example of what mode of secretory release?
When an entire cell is released as the secretory product, e.g., sebaceous glands,what mode of secretory release is this?
The secretory material from When one cell is transferred from the one cell to the cytoplasm of the another cell is what mode of secretory release?
________ are fastened between the secretory cells and basement membrane.
Myoepithelial cells
__________ connects other tissue and provides a framework to support the entire body by cartilage and bones.
Connective (supportive) tissues
Connective tissue is composed of ________, ________, and cells.
Fibers, amorphous ground substance
mesenchymal cells, fibroblasts, reticular cells, adipocytes, pericytes, plasma cells, macrophages and pigment cells are compositions of what?
cells of connective tissue
What are some examples of connective tissue fibers?
collagen, elastic and reticular fibers
What are some examples of amorphous ground substance?
proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans and interstitial fluid
What are mesenchymal cells and where are they found?
connective tissue cells usually found adjacent to blood vessels.
What are fibroblast cells and what are they most commonly used for?
Most common type of connective tissue cells, responsible for the synthesis of fibers and intercellular ground substance (wound repair)
What are the two stages of activity for fibroblast cells?
active (fibroblast) and quiescent (fibrocyte).
What are myofibroblasts?
fibroblasts that contain actin filament- plays a role in contraction during wound healing.
What are reticular cells?
stellate-shaped connective tissue cells, with spherical nucleus and basophilic cytoplasm - produce reticular fibers
What are the 2 different types of adipocytes?
Unilocular - filled with large lipid droplets
Multilocular (brown fat) have a centrally located nucleus with multiple lipid droplets.
_________ are elongated cells located adjacent to the endothelium, lining small blood vessels, contain actin and myosin and participate in healing process.
Where are Mast cells common and what is there function?
common in loose C.T. abundant around blood vessels.
produce heparin (anticoagulant) and histamine (vasoconstrictor).
When mast cells are stained with toluidine blue, there granules stain what color? .
red (metachromatic stain)
Describe plasma cells and where they are commonly found?
spherical or ovoid cells with spherical, eccentric nucleus with a cartwheel appearance
Where are plasma cells commonly found?
lymphatic tissues and lamina propria of the GIT.
develop from B lymphocytes and produce antibodies.
What is a macrophage, what is its function and where is it derived from?
phagocytic cells, derived from monocytes. They contain cytoplasmic vacuoles and numerous lysosomes.
What are pigment cells and where are they found?
They are cells containing pigments (melanin), e.g., dermis, uterine caruncles, choroid and iris.
What are leukocytes and where do they migrate?
They are WBC, lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes (blood cells) that migrate through the wall of capillaries to connective tissue.
What are collagen fibers and where are they found?
They are C.T fibers found in tendon, ligament and organ capsule.
Found in mature C.T. made of fibrous protein (collagen),inelastic.
What type of stains are used with collagen fibers?
Stained red/Van Gieson’s Method blue/Mallory’s and Masson’s Trichrome stain.
What are reticular fibers?
Reticular fibers form networks around capillaries, muscle fibers and nerves. These fibers form the framework of liver, endocrine, lymphatic organs.
What stain is used to view reticular fibers?
These fibers can be stained with silver impregnation (argyrophilic or argentaffin fibers) or PAS reagent.
What type of collagen are reticular fibers?
These fibers are actually individual collagen fibrils (type III collagen) coated with proteoglycans and glycoproteins.
Name 3 type of connective tissue fibers.
collagen, reticular, elastic
What are elastic fibers composed of?
Composed of elastin protein, covered by glycoprotein (fibrillin).
Where are elastic fibers found?
Present in structures that require elasticity, e.g., aorta and muscular arteries, nuchal ligament, pinna of ear and lungs
What are the 5 major types of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)
Hyaluronic acid
Chondroitin sulphate Dermatin sulphate
Keratin sulphate
Heparin sulphate
The cells and fibers of the C.T. are embedded in an amorphous ground substance composed of __________ & ___________.
glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans
Hyaluronic acid is (GAG) found where?
in the vitreous body of eye and in synovial fluid
Chondroitin sulphate is (GAG) found where?
in cartilage, bone, and large blood vessels
Dermatin sulphate is (GAG) found where?
in tendons and ligaments
Keratin sulphate is (GAG) found where?
in cartilage and bones
Heparin sulphate is (GAG) found where?
in arteries and lungs
__________ are formed by covalently linking GAGs to a protein core.
Name the 3 types of connective tissue.
Embryonic CT, adult CT and Special CT
Name the 2 types of embryonic CT.
Mesenchymal and Mucous or gelatinous C.T.
Name the 5 types of adult CT.
Loose or Areolar CT
Dense CT
Elastic CT
Reticular CT
Adipose CT
Name the 2 types of special CT.
Cartilage & bone
What is Mesenchymal CT composed of?
mesenchymal cells/ground substance.
Where is Mucous or gelatinous CT found?
Embryonic CT
Umbilical cord in the embryo Papillae of omasal laminae Reticular fold and bovine glans penis.
Where is Loose or Areolar CT found?
It is found beneath the epithelium (lamina propria, hypodermis), around blood vessels and nerves, and in serous membranes.
Mainly consists of ground substance
What is Dense CT composed of?
Mainly composed of thick collagenous fibers and few fibroblast cells.
Where is Dense irregular C.T.found?
In capsules of the organs, deep layer of the dermis.
Where is Dense regular C.T. found?
In tendons, ligaments and aponeurosis
What are some characteristics of elastic tissue?
regularly or irregularly arranged elastic fibers, nuchal ligament
vocal ligament.
What is reticular tissue composed of?
reticular cells and a network of reticular fibers, spleen
lymph node
What does adipose tissue consist of?
adipocytes in the loose C.T. of mesenteries, around blood vessels and nerves
What does cartilage consist of?
consists of cartilage cells (chondroblasts and chondrocytes) and matrix. It lacks blood vessels.
What is a chondroblast?
basophilic cytoplasm. These cells form the matrix of the cartilage and are found in the growing cartilage.
What are chondrocytes and where are they found?
found in lacuna and is a mature cartilage cell
What is a cartilage matrix composed of?
composed of fibers and ground substance containing proteoglycans and GAGs
Name 3 types of cartilage?
Hyaline, elastic and fibro
Describe hyaline cartilage and where it found?
Hyaline cartilage is surrounded by a perichondrium (collagen fibers and fibroblast) and an inner cellular or chondrogenic layer (chondroblast)
articular surfaces of the bones, nose and trachea
Describe elastic cartilage and where it is found?
found in the pinna and epiglottis.
Similar to hyaline cartilage except that a large amount of elastic fibers are in ground substance.
What are some characteristics of fibrocartilage and where is it found?
prominent type I collagen fibers in the matrix
Intervertebral discs and menisci
What is bone composed of?
Intercellular calcified material (bone matrix) and three cell types (osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts).
Where are osteoblasts located and what do they secrete?
Located on the surface of the bone and secretes osteoid (organic matter of bony matrix) which is calcified by the deposition of calcium salts.
What is an osteocyte and where is it found?
derived from osteoblasts, lies in a lacuna. surrounded by calcified interstitial matrix.
What is an osteoclast, where is it found and what does it secrete?
a large multinucleated cell located in the area of bone resorption or remodeling. It secretes acid and lysosomal emzymes for bone resorption.
What is in bone matrix?
It contains organic and inorganic matter.
What is contained in the organic matter of the bone matrix?
The organic portion contains sulphated GAGs, glycoprotein and type I collagen fibers
What is contained in the inorganic matter of the bone matrix?
calcium and phosphorus are abundant w/ lots of other minerals present
What is contained in bone structure.
Epiphyses, diaphyses and epiphyseal cartilage, Periosteum and endoosteum
What does periosteum consist of?
fibrous and osteogenic layers.
Sharpey's fibers in bone matrix
What is endosteum and where is it found?
lines the marrow cavity with a single layer of squamous cells, osteoblast and osteoclasts.
Where does compact bone and spongy bone form in the bone?
Compact bone forms the outer shells of the diaphyses and epiphyses, whereas spongy bone occurs in the interior of the epiphysis.
What does spongy bone consist of?
Spongy bone consists of delicate bony plates and spicules, which run in various directions.
What does compact bone consist of?
Compact bone consists of osteons or Haversian systems, circumferential lamellae and interstitial lamellae
Where do you find intramembranous ossification?
skull bones ( except base of skull)
Where do you find intracartilaginous or endochondral ossification?
appendicular skeleton, vertebral column and bones of the base of the skull.
In muscular tissue cytoplasm (sarcoplasm) is ___________ because of numerous myofilaments.
__________ muscle is striated and voluntary e.g., muscles attached to the bones of the skeleton
Skeletal muscle:
_________ muscle is striated and involuntary e.g., muscles of the walls of the heart.
Cardiac muscle
_____________ muscle is non-striated and involuntary, e.g., walls of most viscera, e.g., wall of the GIT, uterus, urinary bladder, etc.
Smooth muscle
Myofibrils in skeletal muscles are composed of what?
thick and thin myofilaments.
The thick myofilaments in myofibrils consist of ________.
The thin myofilaments in myofibrils consist of ________.
actin, troponin and tropomyosin.
Thick and thin myofilaments overlap in the darker _______ , whereas, only thin myofilaments are present in the lighter
A band (anisotropic), I band (isotropic).
In E/M, each I band is bissected by a dark transverse line, the _____ . Each A band shows a lighter zone in the center, the_______ , which is bisected by ________ .
Z line, H band, M line
The smallest unit of the contractile apparatus in skeletal muscle is the __________ , which is between two adjacent Z lines.
What does the sarcoplasm contain and what is it covered by?
Contains smooth ER (sarcoplasmic reticulum), glycogen, mitochondria and myoglobin. It is covered by the sarcolemma(cell membrane).
Each muscle fiber is surrounded by a basal lamina and reticular fibers, the _________.
Each bundle of muscle fibers (fascicle) is surrounded by dense irregular C.T. termed the ________.
The muscle at the gross anatomical level is surrounded by a dense irregular c.t. the _________.
__________ are spindle-shaped cells with heterochromatic nuclei, located adjacent to the myocytes.
Satellite cells
___________ represent inactive myoblasts that can be activated upon injury to initiate some regeneration of muscle fibers.
Satellite cells
The _________ fibers are smaller, rich in myoglobin and mitochondria, whereas __________ fibers are larger with few mitochondria.
red (slow-twitch),white (fast-twitch)
The ___________ in cardiac muscle is present at the junction of the adjacent cells. These discs link the adjacent cell mechanically and electrically, creating ___________ .
intercalated disc, syncitium
Cardiac muscle contains specialized impulse conducting fibers called ___________ which have a centrally located nucleus, surrounded by granular (rich in glycogen) sarcoplasm.
Purkinje fibers
___________ in the cytoplasm and cell membrane of smooth muscle serve as anchor sites for the myofilaments. __________ further link the dense bodies into a meshwork array.
Dense bodies, Intermediate filaments
__________ muscles are found in the wall of the visceral organs, have extensive gap junctions forming a syncytium. These muscles are sparsely innervated.
Unitary smooth
____________ muscles are found in the iris of the eye and are capable of precise contractions due to innervation. Gap junctions are absent.
Multiunit smooth
Nervous system regulates the animal’s ___________ appropriately to changes in its environment
ability to respond
The nervous system is formed by nervous tissue, which consist of _________ and supportive cells called __________.
neurons, neuroglia.
The central nervous system includes the _______ and ________.
brain and spinal cord.
The peripheral nervous system consists of ________ and __________.
cranial and spinal nerves.
The autonomic nervous system innervates ___________ .
visceral organs
___________ are layers that surround the central nervous system and the roots of the peripheral nerves.
________________ is present in the cavities of the brain and spinal cord and in the space within the meninges.
Cerebrospinal fluid
Neurons are composed of ________ and __________ .
nerve cell body (perikaryon),
neuronal processes (axon and dendrites)
__________ neurons have one axon and several dendrites.
__________ neurons have one axon and one dendrite, e.g., bipolar cells of the retina.
__________ neurons have one process (axon) that soon bifurcates into central and peripheral branches, e.g. sensory ganglia. These are also known as “pseudopolar neuron”.
Describe the nucleus and cytoplasm of the Nerve cell body (perikaryon).
Nucleus: centrally placed, ovoid or spherical, and relatively euchromatic.

Cytoplasm presents chromatophilic substances or Nissl substance (aggregation of rER and ribosomes
The synaptic sites of dendrites are distinguished by a thick band of ___________ material associated with plasmalemma.
Some neurons have _________, which consist of a membrane sac containing dense material.
dendritic spines (gemmules)
Dendrites are devoid of __________.
golgi complexes
The axon is a relatively long cytoplasmic process, originates from the _________ of the cell body and ends in __________.
axon hillock, terminal branches (telodendrites).
Each terminal branch ends in an expansion called the ____________, where neurotransmitter molecules are packaged and stored within a __________.
terminal bulb, synaptic vesicle.
In addition to synaptic vesicles, the terminal branches of axons may contain ___________ that stores ___________ (agents that augment neurotransmitter effect) and ____________ (oxytocin and vasopressin in hypothalamic neurons).
secretory vesicles, neuromodulators, neurohormones
What is a synapse of a nerve cell body?
site where contact occurs between neuronsand other effector cells (e.g. muscle and gland cells).
What is a nerve synapse formed by?
Synapse is formed by a presynaptic terminal (telodendron), synaptic cleft (inter-cellular space) and post synaptic terminal on dendrites (gemmules).
Name 3 types of synapse.
Axo-somatic (axon with nerve cell body)
Axo-dendritic (axon with dendrite)
Axo-axonic (axon with axon)
Neuroglial cells (gliocytes) provide what?
structural and functional support
Where are microglial cells derived from and how does this differ from other neuroglial cells?
The microglial cells are derived from mesoderm whereas other cells are derived from the neural ectoderm.
What neuroglial cells are found in the CNS?
astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglial cells and ependymal cells
What neuroglial cells are found in the PNS?
neurolemmocytes (Schwann cell) which myelinates axons and becomes a satellite cell in ganglia.
Where are neurolemmocytes derived from?
The neurolemmocytes are derived from the neural crest.
What are astrocytes?
These are star-shaped cells with multiple radiating process that contain glial filaments (stained with silver stain).
What are the functions of astrocytes?
Astrocytes provide structural support by binding neurons to capillaries and to the pia mater
What type of astrocytes are found in white matter?
fibrous astrocytes- processes are long, slender and moderately branched
What type of astrocytes are found in grey matter?
protoplasmic astrocytes-
their processes are shorter and highly branched
Astrocyte processes terminate in an expansion called ____________ which cover the endothelium of blood vessels within the brain and spinal cord and form the _________ . This helps to maintain the electrolyte balance in the CNS.
end feet, blood-brain barrier
____________ have a few small processes that wrap around the axons in the central nervous system, producing a myelin sheath which provides electrical insulation for neurons in the CNS.
___________ are located around axons in the peripheral nervous system and produce the myelin sheath.
Neurolemmocytes or Schwann cells
The myelin sheath is interrupted at the juncture of adjacent neurolemmocytes, forming uninsulated sites called __________.
nodes(of Ranvier)
The myelin sheath between nodes is called an __________ .
____________ are small elongated cells with elongated chromatophilic nucleus and short irregular processes.
Microglial cells
What type of cells are microglial cells?
These cells are phagocytic cells, derived from bone marrow.
_____________ are ciliated, cuboidal or columnar cells, lining the ventricles of the brain and central canal of the spinal cord.
Ependymal cells
What do Ependymal cells do?
These cells facilitate the movement of cerebrospinal fluid.
A nerve fiber consists of an axon enveloped by neurolemmocytes and surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue fibers, the _________.
Nerve fibers are organized into fascicles enveloped by collagenous connective tissue called_________.
The multiple fascicles of a nerve are bound together by connective tissue called _____________ .
What type of neurons (nerve fibers) are found in the PNS?
afferent and efferent neurons
___________ are aggregations of nerve cell bodies along the course of peripheral nerves, supported by connective tissue
___________ are associated with cranial nerves (cranial ganglia) or with the dorsal root of the spinal nerve (spinal ganglia).
Sensory ganglia
Sensory ganglia contain cell bodies of _________ neurons with a single axon, bifurcating into central and peripheral branches.
Each cell body is tightly encapsulated by ganglionic gliocytes or ________.
satellite cells).
__________ ganglia are accumulations of multipolar nerve cell bodies along the course of autonomic nerves.
Autonomic ganglia are accumulations of _______ nerve cell bodies along the course of autonomic nerves.
What are the locations of the receptors that have (afferent terminations).
Exteroreceptors (body surface)
Enteroreceptors (viscera) Proprioceptors (musculoskeletal structures).
What receptors are linked to stimulus?
Mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors and thermoreceptors
name 2 anatomically linked Receptors (afferent terminations
Nonencapsulated receptors,
Encapsulated receptors
Where are Nonencapsulated receptors found?
free nerve ending, tactile corpuscles
Where are encapsulated receptors found?
Encapsulated tactile (Meissner’s) corpuscles, Lamellar (Paccinian) corpuscles, Bulbous (Krause’s) or genital corpuscles, Neurotendinous and neuromuscular spindles.
Neuromuscular synapse (efferent terminations)consist of what?
presynaptic neuronal end plate overlaying a postsynaptic muscle sole plate in the mid region of the muscle fiber.
A _________is formed in the neuromuscular synapse by very short branches within a circumscribed zone (plate) at the end of one terminal branch of a efferent neuron
motor end plate
Each motor end plate lies in the corresponding trough of the ________ with about 40-50 nm _____________ .
muscle sole plate, neuromuscular gap
The motor end plate cytoplasm has many mitochondria and synaptic vesicles that contain ____________.
What does the grey matter of the CNS consist of?
the grey matter consist of nerve cell bodies
What are the different parts of the grey matter of the CNS?
Ventral grey matter (horn) have efferent neurons

Dorsal grey matter (horn) have interneurons

Lateral grey matter (horn) have sympathetic neurons
What does the white matter of the CNS consist of?
What are the different parts of the white matter of the CNS?
Dorsal, ventral and lateral funiculi.
Ascending and descending tracts
Central canal lined by ependymal cells.
Dorsal median septum and ventral median fissure
What are the 6 layers of the cerebral cortex?
1.Molecular layer:
2.External granular layer:
3.External pyramidal layer:
4.Internal granular layer:
5.Internal pyramidal layer: 6.Fusiform layer:
What is presented in the cerebral cortex?
gyri and sulci and six layers (from superficial to deep are present in the grey matter.
What does the molecular and external granular layers of the cerebral cortex consist of?
1.Molecular layer: composed of processes of the stellate or pyramidal neurons (neuropil), arranged tangentially.

2.External granular layer: small pyramidal neurons.
What do the external pyramidal and internal granular layers of the cerebral cortex consist of?
External pyramidal layer: small and medium pyramidal neurons.

Internal granular layer: small stellate neurons.
What do the internal pyramidal and fusiform layers of the cerebral cortex consist of?
Internal pyramidal layer: medium to large pyramidal neurons that send axons into the white matter.

Fusiform layer: many spindle shaped neurons where white matter can be formed
The outer grey and inner white matter of the cerebellum are arranged in a highly folded structure, called the _________.
What are the 3 layers of the cerebellar cortex ?
An outer molecular layer: Inner granular layer:
Intermediate Purkinje cell layer:
What is the white matter of the cerebellum composed of?
White matter is composed of nerve fibers of the cortex.
The outer molecular layer of the cerebellum consista of what?
neuropil arranged horizontally
The inner granular layer of the cerebellum consista of what?
densely packed small neurons with intensely stained nuclei.
The intermediate Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum consista of what?
a single layer of piriform cells, which send their ramified dendrites into the molecular layer, and axons into the white matter.
What do the meninges consist of?
Dura mater or pachymenix
Arachnoid and Pia mater are collectively termed leptomeninges.
Epidural space.
Subarachnoid space.
Cerebrospinal fluid
What is Cerebrospinal fluid produced by and what's its function?
produced by the choroid plexuses in ventricles, by exiting through the lateral aperture it enters the subarachnoid space.
What is the function of Cerebrospinal fluid?
It provides physical protection to the brain and spinal cord.