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52 Cards in this Set

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Genrally portable; any objects that is used, modified, or made by humans; examples- pottery, tone tools, paper, metals; can tell us movement of objects, learn use of pot, artistic culture, year, dirt of ancient people
Organic and environmental remains; can tell us the diet and environment; Example- tomb, storage pits, walls, fortification
non-portable artifacts
Place where significant traces of human activity can be identified
Sites grouped and studied together with their surrounding landscape; can learn about site hierarchy
The physical within which artifacts are embedded or supported
An artifact's position in a matrix; knowing this allows for the identification of the association between things
Primary context
The original place something was buried; what looters destroy
Secondary Context
After a site is looted
Cultural- looting, construction, cemetaries; things humans did
Natural- things nature did, erosion, wind, Pompeii, animal burrowing
Deliberately buried groups of valuables or prized possessions, orten in times of conflict or war, and which, for one reason or another have not been reclaimed. metal hoards are a primary source of evidence for he European bronze age
Peat Bog
preserves the tissues and stuff, not the bones?
Research design
Systematic planning of archaeological research usually including (1) the formulation of a strategy to resolve a particular question; (2) the collection and recording of the evidence; (3) the processing and analysis of these data and their interpretation; and (4) the publication of results
Ground reconnaissance
A collective name for a wide variety of methods for identifying individual archaeological sites, including consultation of documentary sources, placename evidnce, local folklore, and legend, but primarily actual field work
Unsystematic Survey
Walking and picking up what you see
Systematic survey
establishing grids
Aerial reconnaissance
site discovery from air or space (not so much today); take pictures from air; documents changes in site over time; phenomena seen in aerial reconnaissance- earthworks, soil marks, crop marks
1. An earthen embankment, especially one used as a fortification. See Synonyms at bulwark.
2. Engineering Excavation and embankment of earth.
3. A work of art made by altering an area of land or a natural geographic feature, especially on a large scale.

Soil marks
changes in soil color that indicate artifacts
crops don't grow as high in areas where there are walls or trenches or something
Oblique view
better for pictorial effect and perspective; taken at an angle?
Vertical View
Looks completely different from above; taken from straight above?
Planimetric Map
Geographic information systems; map based interace to a database; designed for collection, storage, retrieval, analysis, and display of spatial data
Global Positioning System; provides longitude and latitude on ground by reference to satellites
The study and validation of stratification; the anylysis in the vertical time dimension, of a series of layers in the horizontal, space dimension. It is often used as a relative dating technique to assess the tmeporal sequence of artifact deposition
Law of superposition
stuff at bottom's the oldest; but things get disturbed
Wheeler Kenyon Method
Makes squares; need to leave up baulks; baulks show stratigraphy; they can be dangerous if they are too high
Open-area excavation
The opening up of large horizontal areas for excavation, used especially where single period deposits lie close to the surface as, for example, with the remains of American Indian or European Neolithic long houses
Step-trenching Excavation Method
Used on very deep sites, such as Near Eastern tell sites, in which the excavation proceed downwards in a series of gradually narrowing steps
In situ
situated in the original, natural, or existing place or position: The archaeologists were able to date the vase because it was found in situ.
Relative dating
the determination of chronological sequence without recourse to a fixed time scale; e.g. the arrangement of artifacts in a typological sequence, or seriation
Absolute Dating
The determination of age with reference to a specific time scale, such as a fixed calendrical system; also referred to as chronometric dating
before the common era
common era
Before present (1950)
The co-occurrence of an artifac with other archaeological remains, usually in the same matrix
A relative dating technique based on the chronological ordering of a group of artifacts or assemblages where the most similar are placed adjacent to each other in the series. Two types of seriation can be recognized, frequency seriation and contextual seriation
can survive up to 3 million years; helps to understand climatic changes
set up a chronology of extinct species of animals?
A free standing carved stone monument?
Terminus post quem
Date after which
Terminus ante quem
Date before which
rings on a rock; really only in one area?
tree ring dating
Radiocarbon dating
Method that measures the decay of the radioactive isotope of carbon in organic material; can only date material 50,000-400 years; 5730 years half life; does deviate; standard deviation
5730 years half life; does deviate; standard deviation
Standard deviation
not exactly on correct?`
Potassium-argon dating
A method used to date rocks up to thousands of millions of years old, though it is restricted to volcanic material no more recent than c. 100,000 years old, One of the most widely used methods in the dating of early hominid sties in Africa.
Global events
A collective name for the earliest known hominids emerging about 5 million years ago in East Africa